ENDNOTES SOCIOLOGY: THE BASICS Part 1 Ch 1-4

NOTES FOR EACH CHAPTER BY PAGE-By-PAGE

Here you can find REFERENCES and IDEAS to follow up the book.

Introduction

You can see this section as a little like the footnotes or endnotes of a book – only with links. These provide you sources for materials mentioned in the book and aim to stimulate further interests, reading and research. So if you have found something very interesting as you have been reading the book, this is the place to look to follow up your interests. Not everything is covered of course – there is too much. But you will find a lot.

The section is organized by chapters and pages. Simply turn to the relevant chapter below, and then find the relevant page.

Opening

  1. Imaginations: Acting in a world I never made
  2. Theory: Thinking the social
  3. Societies: Living in the Twenty-First Century
  4. History: Standing on the shoulders of giants
  5. Questions: Cultivating sociological imaginations
  6. Research: Critically engaging with the empirical
  7. Troubles: Suffering inequalities
  8. Visions: Creating sociological hope
    Conclusions: The sociological imaginations- twenty one theses

OPENING

 

Page x

 

Social Hauntings: pxi

The book gives the shorter version of this poem, much abbreviated here for reasons of space. Here is the fuller version:
THE HAUNTING OF SOCIAL THINGS

 

 

We live the social electric.
The air we breathe is social.
The tiny things and the major things.
The social haunting of life in vast time and space.

The social is natural and the natural is social.
We do things together, drenched with people,
attuned to others: there is always the other.
And the haunting of social things.

 

We make social life stuffed full of the possible
yet we dwell in our habits, the patterns and structures,
the predictable positions we trap ourselves in.
The prisons that engulf us, a daily haunting.

Pounding patterns of structure and wobbly worlds of meaning.
We are prisoners, puppets, and people. Always fragile.
World making actions, and resistance, rebellion-
in worlds not of our making that haunt till we die.

Ubiquitous differences, divisions,dominations: the inhumanities of people.
A haunting ‘matrix of inequalities’: generations at war,
gendered classed races, sexy nations disabled.
And the troubled pathways of excluding and exploiting, dehumanizing and disempowering.

At the brink of a change- a world seething with gushing movements.
Pasts, presents and futures collide in the moment.
Where did it come from and where is it headed?
Cyber capitalisms in global ferment haunting the world.

Standing amazed at this chaos and complexity
of the humanly produced social world;
and its joys and its sufferings,
we celebrate it and we critique these hauntings.

Yet the dreadful dullness of professional knowledge.
Its earnest desire for respectability and order,
abstractions to kill you. Standards to die for.
A dark cloak thrown over the mind.

 

We need ‘the tricks of the trade’: practical questions with practical answers.
Rich descriptions and explanations of dense social life.
An intimate familiarity through all the senses.
Explore and respect the empirical world. And look for it hauntings.

 

We dwell in social tensions, conflicts and contradiction.
Observing schisms, thinking paradox,
and struggling with opposing paths: living with the contradictions.
The hard trick of dealing with them in our lives.

The vast multiplicities of social life: Contested. Contingent. Creative.
And thriving. Progressing. Regressing. Sometimes surviving.
Incorrigibly plural. Intransigently vast.
The complex tales how we order our past.
And the blindness of human beings?
The taken for granted need not be taken for granted.
Doubting the familiar; living with radical doubt.

Yet all we know is incomplete and open,
Necessarily provisional, partial, perspectival.
Reality is inexhaustible, too complex and dense to be fully comprehended
No finality. Or closure.

The dream of a better world haunts sociology.
Empowering lives and imagining utopias.
More justice in each generation?
A flourishing life for all?

A dialogue: being personal, being political?
Passionate knowledge? A garden to cultivate?
A quiet catharsis of comprehension? With the other?
Haunted by doubt, love and hope.

 

Pages xii -xiii


PREFACE: WELCOME TO THE SOCIAL MAZE

 

 

Two roads diverged in a wood, and I took the one less travelled: px…. is by       Robert Frost, 1916.

 

This opening quote is derived from the poem The Road Not Taken, 1920

You can find it in full here:

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/173536 by Robert Frost (1874-1963).

And more about Robert Frost here:
https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poet/robert-frost

 

 

 

 

 


CHAPTER ONE: IN A WORLD I NEVER MADE pages 1- 19

 

 

Opening paragraphs: Introducing Sociology

 

For a much fuller account of the ideas contained here, and indeed the whole chapter, read: Peter Berger and Thoman Luckmann’s The Social Construction of Reality (1976 orig; 1990 reprint). The book is available on line at:

http://perflensburg.se/Berger%20social-construction-of-reality.pdf
More briefly, see Peter Berger’s Invitation to Sociology (1966: Chs 4-6).

There are many extracts on line. Search Berger, Invitation to Sociology, PDF

These are now old books but books that inspired me to be a sociologist.

Berger updates his story in his Adventures of an Accidental Sociologist (2011)

 

For wider introductions to sociology on line, see these You Tube opening lectures given by prominent sociologists saying what they think sociology is (and even compare them!)

 

Anthony Giddens: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xl6FoLrv4JQ

Anne Swidler: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XPAcVFErEVg

Harvey Molotch: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4FduU3EokBY

 

You can also now find intro courses on line. Take a look at:

https://www.coursera.org/course/soc101

This is presented by Mitch Dunier from Princeton University
A note on key introductory books

 

There are really four classics that have been around for a long time. Peter Berger’s Invitation to Sociology (1966), Norbert Elias What is Sociology (1978), Zygmunt Baumman’s Thinking Sociologically, and of course C Wright Mills. Then there are perhaps four new classics that have been published more recently – Giddens, Jenkins, Bruce and Plummer. In the US market there are many such books. Lemert’ s Social Things is probably the best seller. More recent additions might include: Gregor MCLennan’s Story of Sociology (2011) and William Outwaite’s Social Theory: Ideas in Profile (2015) but they focus more specifically on theory.

 

Readings

 

A very useful set of readings to introduce you to sociological ideas is

Daniel Nehring: Sociology: A Introductory Text and Reader.

You may also like to look at his blog

http://www.socialsciencespace.com/author/danielnehring/

 

 

 

Page 1

In a world I never made. ….The title of this chapter is derived from an A E Housman poem. See his Last Poems, XII http://www.theotherpages.org/poems/housman1.html

And for more on Housman, see

.http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/a-e-housman.

 

 

Page 1

The idea of ‘thrownness into the world’ is a philosophical one derived from the philosopher Heidegger in Being and Time, and linked the philosophical tradition of existentialism. It is accessible at:

https://www.questia.com/library/98614377/being-and-time

This is not an easy idea. Sociologists are often informed by philosophers; but they are not philosophers and always have to return to issues of empirical research.

 

Page 2

The quote from Durkheim – ‘come to each one of us from outside and .. sweep us along in spite of ourselves’ . See Emile Durkheim: Rules of Sociological Method

( p52-3). The standard biography of Durkheim is Steven Lukes. Emile Durkheim.1973 Allen Lane/Penguin.

 

You can find a lively ‘Social Science Bits’ account by Steve Lukes at: http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2015/05/steven-lukes-on-durkheim/

 

 

Page 2

‘How we adapt and conform, rebel and innovate, ritualise and withdraw’…

This is a very short summary of a major sociological essay by Robert King Merton from his Social Theory and Social Structure.1968 rev ed. MacMillan

Merton was a major sociologist of the mid twentieth century. There is much about him on the web. You might like to see how he was recalled after his death at:

http://www.asanet.org/footnotes/mar03/indextwo.html

 

Page 3 -5

Sociologists as Outsiders on the Margins?
Sociologists have long expressed interest in a wide range of people who do not fit in. These are the Strangers (Simmel, Schutz), migrants, outsiders (Camus, Becker), ‘marginal men’ (Stonequist), ‘invisible man’ (Ellison), the alienated, the romantic (Gouldner) , the gothic and the queer, the Appolian and the Dynosian (Nietszche) and the Master-Slave morality. They are also ‘the wretched of the earth (Fanon), the female eunuch (Greer) and the second sex (DeBeauvoir). There is a history of talking about those who wear ‘the mask’ or the veil’ It is a sociological story well paralleled in history. James Baldwin’s Stranger in the Village, Herman Hesse’s Steppenwolf – singles out from other people; Santayana The Idler and his Works (1957). There is also Ralph Ellison’s ‘Invisible man’…. They all have their own heroes and histories. But they also have much in common. See also: Montesquieu’s Persian Letters, Tocqueville’s Democracy in America, Fanon’s The Wretched of the Earth…… and a horde of literary figures Shakespeare’s King Lear, Don Quixote, Virginia Wolf, , Richard Wright, Walt Whitmans, Samuel Beckett, and Schopenhauer .

Sociologists often join this outsider tradition. If this interests you, search on line for all the names listed above.

 

There are some sociologists who conduct ‘breaching experiments’ making strange our everyday life experiences.   On this, see the case studies by Harold Garfinkel in his classic Studies in Ethnomethodology. 1967/1984 Polity.

See the account on the web site, Wired Cosmos at:

http://wiredcosmos.com/2012/06/07/sociology-in-action-the-breaching-experiment/
Zygmunt Bauman uses the phrase defamiliarise ourselves with the familiar in his Thinking Sociology which is an excellent introduction to sociology.

 

 

Page 6-7: Dark Side

For contemporary work on slavery, see the web site

http://www.globalslaveryindex.org/

and the work of Kevin Bales

http://www.kevinbales.net/

The writings of Kevin Bales include. The Modern World of Secret Slavery (2009) ; Documenting Disposable People (2010) Hayward Gallery; Modern Slavery: A beginner’s Guide (2011)

 

The bloody short twentieth century is Hobsbawm’s term: he is a major twentieth century historian. see Eric Hobsbawm (1994) The Age of Extremes 1914-1991. London: Michael Joseph.

For extracts, see:

https://libcom.org/files/Eric%20Hobsbawm%20-%20Age%20Of%20Extremes%20-%201914-1991.pdf

 

For discussions and details of the figures on global deaths, look at Matthew Whites’s Atrocitology: Humanity’s 100 Deadliest Achievements (2012). London: Canongate and his web site at:

http://necrometrics.com/index.htm

He is neither a sociologist nor even an academic, but he does put together a lot of information, provides sources and is critical of his data. Much of his data can be found in his remarkable catalogue:

 

Page 8

I have written about my illness in more detail in several places. See my web site but especially :
https://kenplummer.com/2012/07/04/article-my-multiple-sick-bodies/
Page 9

Voltaire’s famous satire Candide (1759). ‘everything is for the best in the best of all possible worlds’ (The Panglossian philosophy), ‘We had better’, he says, ‘cultivate our own gardens. And here we may find some happiness in the world’.

It is downloadable at:

http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/19942

 

 

p10 Travelling in the Air: Airports and flying.

See Chris Watson ed Beyond Flying Cambridge Green Books and especially ‘To fly or not to fly’ by Chris Brazier. He cites the elite activity where 1% of humanity is responsible for 80 per cent of the world’s delights (only 5% of the world ever having flown). Page 17

 

Look at the following web sites for backgrounds on the International Airport World: http://www.aci-na.org/content/aci-world-traffic-statistics

US Federal Aviation Administration

http://www.faa.gov/

IATA (The International Air Trade Association)

http://www.iata.org/Pages/default.aspx

 

For further reading, see:
Harvey Molotch’s Against Security (2012: Ch 2)

Rachel Hall’s The Transparent Traveller (2015)

Alain de Botton: A Week at the Aiport (2010) Vintage
Mark Gottdiener’s Life in the Air 2001: Rowman & Littlefield

See also the work of John Urry, especially his book Mobilities (2007) Polity Ch 7.

Saoulo Cwerner, Sven Kesserling and John Urry ‘s work Aeromobilities (2008) is a collection of essays that tackle in many different ways the growing importance of aviation and air travel in our hypermobile, globalized world.

 

See also:

The end of the film ‘Love Actually’
The ending of the Richard Curtis film Love Actually (2003) shows the arrival gate. This closing scene –especially the closing credits is worth a view, and is accessible on the YouTube.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iEQPXDGRaEk

It suggests to me a sense of millions of lives connecting to a wider social structure.

A now classic film about Airport life is Steven Spielberg’s The Terminal (2004)

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0362227/

An eastern immigrant finds himself stranded in JFK airport, and must take up temporary residence there.

 

Page 11
The September 11 attacks (often referred to as September 11th or 9/11) were a series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001.19 al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners, intentionally crashing two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City and killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings. (The hijackers crashed a third airliner into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside Washington, D.C.; and a fourth plane crashed into a field near Shanksville in rural Pennsylvania. 2,976 victims and the 19 hijackers died in the attacks.

You can actually watch it in detail on the You Tube and it has over the past decade and a half shaped the course of history. There are lots of live films e.g https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g11nNUqMcro

For the best 10 films on 9/11, see
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/8753226/The-10-most-significant-films-about-the-September-11-attacks.html

Page 13

Middlemarch came to my attention for its sociological interest in a book by

Candace Clark Misery and Company: Sympathy in Everyday Life (1997)

George Elliot’s nineteenth-century novel Middlemarch is a marvelous example.

It can be found via the Gutenberg Project at

http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/145

 

Page 14 A sociology of tomatoes

See: Mark Harvey, Steve Quilley and Huw Benyon Exploring the Tomato :
Transformations of Nature, Society and Economy 2002. Elgar.
The book provides a “conceptual framework of ‘instituted economic process’ and demonstrates how different tomato forms are an expression of dynamic processes in capitalist economies and societies during the twentieth century. As both an early pioneer in mass production and a contemporary contributor to the creation of global cuisines, the tomato has been subject to intense innovation. Computerised total ecologies under glass, producing fresh tomatoes of all shapes, colours and sizes, compete with sun and southern climates across the world. To enter the variety of tomato worlds is to discover the variety of capitalism”. (Book blurb).

 

On the work of Mark Harvey, see

https://www.essex.ac.uk/sociology/staff/profile.aspx?ID=148

 

Page 15 Toilets

 

Page 15 On Toilets and Global Sanitation
Core information on global sanitation can be found

Waterorg: http://water.org/water-crisis/water-sanitation-facts/

Water Aid: See http://www.wateraid.org/uk

See their annual report e.g. It’s No Joke: The State of the World’s Toilets, 2015.

http://www.issuelab.org/resource/its_no_joke_the_state_of_the_worlds_toilets_2015

 

Page 16

In the text, I mention the film Q2P (2006). It can be found online at:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hsJh_BamKgo

This shows how gender and class inequalities are revealed through toilets; something we normally take for granted. Set in Mumbai, India, where a woman going to the loo alone is stigmatized, the film looks at who has to queue to pee, and how urban centre design becomes gendered by this social prohibition. Paromita Vohra, a filmmaker and writer, makes this Indian documentary. Her writing for film includes the feature films Khamosh Pani (dir: Sabiha Sumar) which she won the Best Screenplay award at the Kara Film Festival, 2003 and the Indian adaptation of Ang Lee’s Eat Drink Man Woman (in Development, Dir: Arjun Sajnani) . She writes a fortnightly column in the Mumbai Mirror and is a regular contributor to various journals in India and internationally.

 

For reading, see

Maggie Black and Ben Fawcett The Last Taboo: Opening the Door on the Global Sanitation Crisis 2008 Earthscan

A good general read here is:

Rose George   The Big Necessity 2008 Portobello Books

On gender and toilets, see:

Olga Gershenson & Barbara Penne reds ladies and Gents: Public Toilets and Gender. 2009 Temple University

For the sociology of toilets, see Dara Blumenthal’s Little Vast Rooms of Undoing ( 2014);

The Harvey Molotch book mentioned in the text was originally a conference at New York University and the Center for Architecture : “Outing the Water Closet: Sex, Gender, and the Public Toilet” on Sat., Nov. 3, at the Center for Architecture

Harvey Molotch’s course was called “The Urban Toilet,” . Consider a few of the texts: he used:

Week 3: Intimate Pollution (Contemporary)
Jo-Anne Bichard, Julienne Hanson and Clara Greed. “Please Wash Your Hands.” In The Senses and Society Vol. 2 Issue 3 p. 385-390.
Week 7: Race, Class & Gender
Penner, Barbara. (2001b) “A World of Unmentionable Suffering: Women’s Public Conveniences in Victorian London.” In Journal of Design History Vol. 14, (35-52).
Mitchell Duneier “When You Gotta Go” from Sidewalk. NY: Farrar Straus & Giroux, 1999.
Week 8: Sexual Spaces
Lee Edelman, “Men’s Room” in Joel Sanders (ed). (1996) Stud: Architectures of Masculinity. Princeton Papers on Architecture Series. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Tea Room Trade is by Laud Humphreys (1930-1988). Aldine 1975 (orig: 1969). There was major controversy about this book when it was first published in the late 1960’s and became much discussed in debates about the ethics of research. He showed how toilets could be used by heterosexual men for homosexual pickups with routine users remaining unaware of the homosexual activities that were taking place.

Read parts of it on PDF at:

https://is.muni.cz/el/1423/podzim2013/GEN107/um/HUMPHREYS.pdf

On Laud Humphreys (1930-1988), see John F.Galliher  Laud Humphreys Prophet of Homosexuality and Sociology ( 2004) University of Wisconsin

Page 16 Phones
On up to date statistics on phone usage in UK, see: http://media.ofcom.org.uk/facts/

And in the US, see:

http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/01/us-smartphone-use-in-2015/
Global Digital Snapshots

http://thenextweb.com/socialmedia/2015/01/21/2015-worldwide-internet-mobile-social-media-trends-get-376-pages-data/

https://www.research-live.com/article/news/smartphones-overtake-laptops-for-internet-access/id/4013718

The sociology of phones has become a very popular area of study and there is a lot written. For a selection, see:

Jon Agar Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone (2013) Icon
Nancy Baym Personal Connections in the Digital Age. (2015 2nd ed) Cambridge: Polity
Chris Berry et al Mobile Cultures: New Media in Queer Asia (2003): Duke University Press
Mirjam de Brujin (2009) Mobile Phones: The New Talking Drums of Africa (2009) Langaa: RPCIG
Manuel Castells et al Mobile Communication and Society: A Global Perspective (2004) MIT Press
Ian Hutchby Conversation and Technology: From the Telephone to the Internet (2001) Polity Press
James Katz & Mark Aakhus Perpetual Contact (2002) Cambridge University Press
Rich Ling New Tech: New Ties: how mobile communication is reshaping social cohesion (2008) MIT Press
Mizuko Ito et al Personal, Portable, Pedestrian: Mobile Phones in Japanese Life ( 2005) MIT Press
Parthajeet Sarma Smart Phones and Dumb People ? (2013) Good Times
Jordan Smith Smart Phones as Locative Media (2015) Polity
Cara Wallis Technomobility in China (2015) NYU Press
 

CHAPTER TWO: THINKING THE SOCIAL

 

Page 20 – 23 What is the social?

An early instructive guide on the meaning of the social is: David Frisby and Derek Sayer Society. Routledge. 1986

More recently, see Elliott and Turner On Society 2012.

A much more advanced and complicated reading of all this can be found in Michael Halewood Rethinking the Social Through Marx, Durkheim, Weber and Whitehead (2014).

 

 

Page 21 Multidisciplinarity

Anthropology, criminology, economics, humanities, history, philosophy, psychology

See: what is social science?

http://www.esrc.ac.uk/about-us/what-is-social-science/

and the video:

http://www.esrc.ac.uk/about-us/what-is-social-science/videos-what-is-social-science/

The case for disciplines is made by

Jerry Jacobs: In Defense of Disciplines 2014 University of Chicago Press

 

See also:

John Aldrich ed 2014 Interdisciplinarity. Oxford 2014

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Interdisciplinarity-Its-Role-Discipline-Based-Academy/dp/0199331359/ref=sr_1_6?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1459952441&sr=1-6&keywords=interdisciplinarity

 

 

Page 23

 

On the work of Simmel, a guide is David Frisby: Georg Simmel (2nd ed 2002 Routledge; the standard collection of his readings are: Kurt Wolff The Sociology of Georg Simmel ( 1964)Free Press; and for a lively discussion of his work see: Ralph M Leck Georg Simmel and Avant-Garde Sociology (2000). Humanity Books.

 

A little of his work is accessible on line. His essay : How is society possible can be accessed at: http://socserv2.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/simmel/society

 

The classic source for discussing social facts is Emile Durkheim The rules of sociological method. See

http://comparsociology.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Emile-Durkheim-Rules-of-Sociological-Method-1982.pdf

 

 

Page 23

 

The phrase ‘doing things together’ comes from the book by Howard S.Becker (1928- ) with that title (University of Chicago Press).

Becker’s web site can be found at HOWIE’S WEB PAGE

http://howardsbecker.com/

 

For an interesting interview with him, see:

http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/01/12/outside-game

New York, January 12, 2015

 

‘The Robinson Crusoe problem’ is after the famous novel by Daniel Defoe )? You can download the entire unabridged texts

http://www.planetebook.com/ebooks/Robinson-Crusoe.pdf

Daniel Defoe based his classic tale of shipwreck and survival on an uninhabited island is based on a true story. The real Robinson Crusoe was a Scotsman named Alexander Selkirk (or Selcraig).

 

 

Page 24 Acquiring the Self

Feral Children

Many studies of feral children left living in isolation and then discovered later show that they simply cannot then function as social beings. (Some classic cases here are Victor, the Wild Boy of Averyon and Kasper Hauser).

http://www.smashinglists.com/10-feral-human-children-raised-by-animals/

 

 

Page 25-6

For more on symbolic interactionism (SI) in general, see the society for the Study of Symbolic Interaction

https://sites.google.com/site/sssinteraction/

and my essay at:

https://kenplummer.com/publications/selected-writings-2/symbolic-interactionism-in-the-twentieth-century/

 

 

Note on Symbolic Intercationism:
SI is based on pragmatism – a movement in American philosophy which began in the 1870s with the Metaphysical Club. Read about the history of pragmatism and get introductions to pragmatism and pragmatists.

On pragmatism, see:
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/pragmatism/

The symbolic interactionist approach is associated initially with the ideas of George Mead and stresses the formation of the self through processes of interaction.

See: http://www.iep.utm.edu/mead/

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mead/

http://www.cf.ac.uk/socsi/undergraduate/introsoc/social4.html

The history and foundations of symbolic interactionism, involve looking at works of James, Cooley Mead and his influence on Herbert Blumer and others in their studies of the self.

 

Classical Studies

James, William Psychology.

Mead, George Herbert [1934] Mind, Self, and Society.

Mead, George Herbert Essays in Social Psychology.

Blumer, Herbert [1969] Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method.

Cooley, Charles Horton [1962] On Self and Social Organization.

Cooley, Charles Horton [1983 print] Human Nature and Social Order

Strauss, Anselm [1959] Mirrors and Masks.

See also:

Filipe Carreira da Silva [2007] G. H. Mead

 

General readings on Symbolic Interactionism

Lindesmith, Alfred R., Strauss, Anselm L. and Denzin, Norman K. (1999) Social Psychology. 8th Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Charan, Joel (2007) Symbolic Interactionism. 9th edition. Pearson. HM251.4.C5

Reynolds, Larry & Nancy J.Herman –Kinney [2003] Handbook of Symbolic Interactionism Alta Mira

Denzin, Norman [1992] Symbolic Interactionism and Cultural Studies: The Politics of Interpretation Blackwell.

Atkinson, Paul & William Housley (2003) Interactionism. Sage

 

My own work has been shaped by this tradition and you might be interested in some of my work here:

Plummer Ken (2009) ‘ A Quiet Catharsis of Comprehension’. Symbolic Interaction Vol 32. No 3 p174-7

https://kenplummer.com/2012/07/05/inspirations-a-poetic-for-paul/

 

see also:
Plummer, Ken (2010) ‘Generational Sexualities, Subterranean Traditions and hanutings of the sexuial World’ Symbolic Interaction. Vol 33. No 2. P163-190

Plummer, Ken (2007) ‘Herbert Blumer’ in Rob Stones (ed.) Key Sociological Thinkers, 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Macmillan. HM 19.K4.

Plummer, Ken [1996, 2000] ‘Symbolic Interactionism in the Twentieth Century’, in Bryan S. Turner (ed.) The Blackwell Companion to Social Theory 1st and 2nd ed., H61.B6.

Plummer, Ken (ed.) (1991) Symbolic Interactionism, 2 Volumes. Aldershot: E. Elgar. HM 251.4.S9 (contains many classic pieces).

Plummer, Ken (2001) Documents of Life-2: An Invitation to a Critical Humanism. London: Sage. HM 24.P6, Online book.

Plummer, Ken (1995) Telling Sexual Stories: Power, Change, and Social Worlds. London: Routledge. HQ 23, Online book.

Plummer. Ken (1995) ‘Telling sexual stories in a late modern world’. Studies in Symbolic Interaction Vol. 18, pp, 101-120. HM 1.S98

 

 

Page 28

Here is John Donne’s famous poem ‘No man is an island’.

https://web.cs.dal.ca/~johnston/poetry/island.html

 

No man is an island entire of itself; every man
is a piece of the continent, a part of the main;
if a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe
is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as
well as any manner of thy friends or of thine
own were; any man’s death diminishes me,
because I am involved in mankind.
And therefore never send to know for whom
the bell tolls; it tolls for thee.

See: “Meditation XVII,” by the English poet John Donne

28
Page 28 The Body

See Routledge Handbook of the Body:
http://www.tandfebooks.com/doi/book/10.4324/9780203842096

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=CWkqAAAAQBAJ&dq=Bryan+S+Taylor+Handbook+Body

 

Page 32

See: Norbert Elias (1897–1990) The Civilizing Process 2000: Polity . For an account of his work, see Stephen Mennell Norbert Elias (2008 new ed) Dublin Press. See the web site of the Elias Foundation at:

http://www.norberteliasfoundation.nl/

 

The sociological followers of Elias – of which there are many- have suggested that more recently there has been further changes on the body. It has now become informalized.

See also the work of Cas Wouters Informalization. 2007. Sage

 

 

Page 33
Metaphors: The Tropes of Theory

One way for the beginner to start thinking about theory and analysing the patterns of societies is through its imagery, tropes and metaphors. This is far from a common way of entering theory but I think it will help as a starting point. A trope is a figure of speech, which uses a word or phrase in a way other than what is considered its literal or normal forms – turning it into something else. Key examples are metaphors (juxtaposing disparate things with a similar characteristic: e.g seeing rape as the war between the sexes), irony (implying the opposite of the standard meaning, such as describing a bad situation as “good times.”), allegory ( a sustained ‘story’ metaphor as in Plato’s ‘the cave’ in The Republic, or C.S.Lewis The Chronicles of Narnia), metonymy (where any item is not called by its own name, but by the name of something intimately associated with it) and synecdoche (where a part of something is used to refer to the whole: eg The White House is commonly used to represent the federal government of the United States ) . Generally, behind every major social theory, there is a trope, an image, a frame, a metaphor which suggests a way of seeing the social world. Of course, every way of seeing is a way of not seeing… metaphors suggest patterns of social life, but they are not mutually exclusive. And often they can be mixed up. Different metaphors may well help us see the world in different ways and combinations of them may help broaden our own sociological imaginations and visions.

 

All of social life depends upon language, and part of the sociological soul requires a self awareness of the language used to describe society. Much this language is metaphorical.

 

Society’s intelligible order, then, is often seen through the eyes of something else. I have already likened society to a prison and we have also already seen it as a drama. But we can also analyse society as an evolving human body (the organic trope), as a stage play (dramaturgy), as a machine, as a discourse (with its own semiotic code), as a war (conflict theory), as a system of law and rules, as a market place, as a game, as play. Thinking in sociology is to raise a wide range of possible languages. Society is seen as intelligible order through a language of something else. I will consider a couple of these examples below.

 

In raising these metaphors, I suggest the reader might be willing to play a mind game and indulge me a bit. I would like the reader to maybe spend a few hours looking around the world through the different languages I suggest…. The question to pose is whether such a new language opens your eyes to new ways of thinking about and understanding the nature of social life….. if it doesn’t I will be surprised. These are, after all, ways of thinking that have inspired generations of social thinkers earlier.

 

On metaphors, see:

Daniel Rigney: The Metaphorical Society: An Invitation to Social Theory (2001)
http://www.amazon.co.uk/Metaphorical-Society-Invitation-Social-Theory/dp/0742509389/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1459242987&sr=1-1&keywords=The+Metaphorical+Society

and Donald N.Levine’s Visions of the Sociological Tradition (1995)

http://www.amazon.com/Visions-Sociological-Tradition-Donald-Levine/dp/0226475476

 

Page 33

 

‘Every way of seeing is also always a way of not seeing’. This nice phrase comes from Kenneth Burke, a literary critic;

 

‘The limits of our language are often the limits of our visions’.. is a simplification of Wittgenstein’s: The limits of my language mean the limits of my world.
Wittgenstein published only one book in his lifetime, the Logico-Tractatus Philosophicus. It is a short book written in an unusual style. There are no paragraphs. Many sections, which are numbered, consist of a single sentence. The exception to this style is the preface which reads;

“Perhaps this book will be understood only by someone who has himself already had the thoughts that are expressed in it–or at least similar thoughts.–So it is not a textbook.–Its purpose would be achieved if it gave pleasure to one person who read and understood it. The book deals with the problems of philosophy, and shows, I believe, that the reason why these problems are posed is that the logic of our language is misunderstood. The whole sense of the book might be summed up in the following words: what can be said at all can be said clearly, and what we cannot talk about we must pass over in silence. Thus the aim of the book is to draw a limit to thought, or rather–not to thought, but to the expression of thoughts: for in order to be able to draw a limit to thought, we should have to find both sides of the limit thinkable (i.e. we should have to be able to think what cannot be thought). It will therefore only be in language that the limit can be drawn, and what lies on the other side of the limit will simply be nonsense. I do not wish to judge how far my efforts coincide with those of other philosophers. Indeed, what I have written here makes no claim to novelty in detail, and the reason why I give no sources is that it is a matter of indifference to me whether the thoughts that I have had have been anticipated by someone else.”

A key statement in this preface is that he is seeking to draw a limit to thought. That does not mean to create restrictions for thinking. Instead Wittgenstein is setting out to show that that by mapping the possibilities and impossibilities of thought, we can describe the limits of reality. After all, if we cannot think it then it cannot be — in our world at least. That is, for something to exist in the world (in actuality or imagination), it must be potentially thinkable by us, otherwise it could never register on our minds at all.

 

Page 34 – Sociological theory

 

General links to classic sociological theory :

For the American Sociological Association

http://www.csun.edu/~egodard/asatheory/links-classical.html

Cardiff University has quite a good home page for students:

http://www.cf.ac.uk/socsi/undergraduate/introsoc/index.html

The Durkheim Pages:

http://durkheim.uchicago.edu/

The Marx Engels Archive:

https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/

Max Weber: http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/users/f/felwell/www/Theorists/Weber/Whome.htm

See also The Yale Open Theory Course at:

http://oyc.yale.edu/sociology/socy-151

 

 

Using Wikipedia you can get a little very basic introductions. This is far too sketchy but you can overview these fairly speedily and then see where you want to go next.

For example:

Structural Functionalism

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structural_functionalism

Anomie theory

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anomie

Conflict theories

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conflict_theories

Erving Goffman

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erving_Goffman

Ethnomethodology

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnomethodology

Rational choice theory

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rational_choice_theory

Symbolic interactionism

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbolic_interactionism

Psychoanalytic theory

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychoanalytic_theory

Discourse analysis

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discourse_analysis

 

From this, move on major textbooks:

There are many useful volumes to guide the new student through sociological theory. Two useful starting points are:
Michele Dillon: Introduction to Sociological Theory: Theorists, Concepts and their Applicability to the Twenty First Century 2010 Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell.

Kenneth Allan. Contemporary Social and Sociological Theory: Visualizing Social Worlds. 2006. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press.
Useful too are:

Rob Stones Key Thinkers of Sociological Theory. 2008 2nd ed . Palgrave

John Scott. Sociological Theory. 2008. Sage

Steven Seidman. Contested Knowledge. 2008 4th edition. Blackwell

Page 35   Social bonding

The work of Robert Putnam is at http://robertdputnam.com/
Bowling Alone is discussed at: http://bowlingalone.com/
There is a long tradition in sociology which looks at social bonding. The search for community for instance has been a major theme of much sociological writing – from abstract searches for the meaning of the idea of community ( variously ideal, rural, urban, ‘imagined’, and now ‘virtual’) to the empirical description of actual communities (known as the community studies research tradition) from small town America (Middletown being the classic) to suggestions of the full range of communities from small and intense to large ( see Frankenberg’s classic review in his Communities in Britain).   Central to much too is the idea of identity, of how people locate themselves in and identify with different communities and bonds.

 

Of great current interest to sociologists is the rise of the new ways in which social bonds, social ties and identities develop not just in traditional forms such as families and communities of place, but also the attachments made through social movements and the interent – new social networks take on mechanisms for new social bonds and identities……

On Community and Social Bonds, see:

Zygymunt Baumann Community 2000 Polity
Gerard Delanty Community 2003 Routledge

Robert Bellah et The Habits of the Heart 1992 University of California Press is a prime contemporary example.

More recently it is found in writing about social capital and is well discussed by John Field 2nd ed 2008 Routledge
Page 36

Functionalism dominated for a hundred years but fashion in sociology means it is rarely written about today and few sociologists now claim to be functionalists. Nevertheless, it remains a key way of grasping the world implicitly. See

https://www.boundless.com/sociology/textbooks/boundless-sociology-textbook/sociology-1/theoretical-perspectives-in-sociology-24/the-functionalist-perspective-155-3284/

https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Sociological_Theory/Structural_Functionalism

A key foundational text remains
Talcott Parsons The Social System orig 1951, revised 1991 Routledge

On Talcott Parsons as a Key Sociologist of the Twentieth Century, see:
http://www.asanet.org/about/presidents/Talcott_Parsons.cfm
http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Talcott_Parsons.aspx
http://www.sociologyguide.com/thinkers/Talcott-Parsons.php
Niklas Luhmann is a major contemporary functionalist thinker, usually seen as a neo-functionalist and systems theorist. His work is reviewed in Christian Borsch’s Niklas Luhmann 2010 Rouledge. His books can be found listed at:http://www.goodreads.com/author/show/193513.Niklas_Luhmann

On Herbert Spencer see:
http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/herbert-spencer-171.php
http://oll.libertyfund.org/people/herbert-spencer

 

Page 37   Conflict images

On Machiavelli, see The Prince downloadable at: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1232?msg=welcome_stranger

See also:
http://historyguide.org/intellect/machiavelli.html

Some general works to look at include:

Ralph Dahrendorf Class and class conflict in industrial society 1959
Download at: http://www.archive.org/stream/classclassconfli00dahr/classclassconfli00dahr_djvu.txt

C.Wright Mills The Power Elite 1956 Galaxy BooksFor a guide: see https://www.marxists.org/subject/humanism/mills-c-wright/power-elite.htm

The conflict theorists mentioned in the book would include Karl Marx, William Du Bois, C.Wright Mills, Georg Simmel, Critical Theory and the Frankfurt School. It also includes feminism, race theory and queer theory.

Page 39

 

Erving Goffman (1922-1982) has been called the most influential ‘micro-sociologist’ of the twentieth century. His key work is The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1956), and subsequently published as a Penguin book which is still widely available today. He went on to examine the underlife of people living in hospitals, concentration camps, prisons and what he calls ‘total institutions’ in Asylums (1961) Penguin.

There is a podcast discussion of his work on Laurie Taylor: Thinking Allowed 9th Sept 2013
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b039cy07
And an interview with Peter Lunt about his work at:
http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2015/02/peter-lunt-on-erving-goffman/

Look at:
Michael Hviid Jacobsen and Søren Kristiansen The Social Thought of Erving Goffman (2015) Sage
Greg Smith Erving Goffman (2006)
Thomas J Scheff Goffman Unbound (2006)
A. Javier Trevano Goffman’s Legacy (2003) esp intro

A more advanced treatment and development of Goffman’s ideas can be found in : Randall Collins Interaction Ritual Chains (2004) where he develops the idea of interaction ritual chain.

There is also Performance theory: A good general guide to this is
Richard Schechner Performance Studies: An Introduction. 2006 2nd ed Routledge

Page 41 Foucault

The key texts of Foucault are mentioned in the table.

See the web site:
http://www.michel-foucault.com/

For general introductions, see:

Chris Horrocks and Zoran Jevic Introducing Foucault: A Graphic Guide 2009 Icon
Lisa Downing The Cambridge Introduction to Michel Foucault 2008 Cambridge University Press
Geoff Danaher, Tony Schirato & Jan Webb Understanding Foucault 2000 Sage
Gary Guting Foucault: A very short introduction 2005 Oxford

Page 42 Cultures

Cultures

See Raymond Williams: Culture is Ordinary at

http://artsites.ucsc.edu/faculty/Gustafson/FILM%20162.W10/readings/Williams.Ordinary.pdf

 

On the idea of culture as a ‘tool box’ see

See: Ann Swidler Culture in Action: Symbols and Strategies

American Sociological Review, Vol. 51, No. 2. (Apr., 1986), pp. 273-286.

and can be downloaded at:

http://www.asanet.org/introtosociology/documents/asrswidler1986.pdf

see also:

http://www.theculturelab.umd.edu/culture-as-tool-kit.html

 

More complex ideas of culture can be found in a consideration of multiculturalism:

See Seyla Banhabib The Claims of Culture: Equality and Diversity in the Global Culture 2002 Princeton especially the introduction
Page 44 Branding

The full version of Chaplin’s Modern Times and Lang’s Metropolis are both downloadable on the You Tube.

Modern Times: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DfGs2Y5WJ14
Metropolis: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E1kxfiY_1DA

For many years I used to show the opening sequences of Metropolis in my sociology courses and they are always dramatic.

The 8th edition of The McDonaldization of Society was published in August 2014. There is a useful book of readings around it: see The McDonaldization Reader. 3rd ed. Pine Press. 2009
See the George Ritzer Website at:
http://www.georgeritzer.com/

Page 45 Rational choice

The classic text to look at here is:
Marcel Mauss: The Gift – see
http://goodmachine.org/PDF/mauss_gift.pdf

A prime proponent of rational theory in British sociology is John Goldthorpe. See his On Sociology, 2000. He is critical of all the tendencies in sociology to become ‘humanistic’, ‘reflexive’, ‘critical’.

I might note that these are all positions that I take in this book!

For a recent paper, see: https://www.spi.ox.ac.uk/fileadmin/documents/PDF/Goldthorpe_Social_Mob_paper_01.pdf
Page 46 Unconscious etc

Background overview of Freud: see
http://www.iep.utm.edu/freud/

Some of the works of Freud can be found at:
https://librivox.org/author/312?primary_key=312&search_category=author&search_page=1&search_form=get_results

Henry Abramson Freud’s ‘Jewish’ Biography: see You Tubehttp://jewishhistorylectures.org/2015/03/12/who-was-sigmund-freud-jewish-biography-as-history/

 

Page 47 Complexities, mobilities

What is the Mobility Turn?

See John Urry’s discussion of this on the You Tube at:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G22hDmpfELk

See Baumann on Liquid Modernity athttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4QVSisK440w

On Deleuze, and the significance of ‘assemblage’ see the Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy :
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/deleuze/
A short guide is Rob Shields and Mickey Valee ed Demystifying Deleuze 2012 Quill Books

 

 

See also Bruno Latour : Reassembling the Social (2005)
A useful resource on this is The Actor Network Resource though it has got a little out of date recently:

See http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fass/centres/css/ant/antres.htm

 

 


CHAPTER THREE

SOCIETIES: LIVING IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

p 50 -96

 

 

Page 50

In the history of mankind, the amount of time civilization has existed is minute … it is very much an immature and ongoing experiment, the success of which is by no means proven. Colin Turnbull, The Human Cycle, 1984

See Colin Turnbull: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colin_Turnbull

 

The Hubble Space Telescope data estimates between 125 in 1991 and 170 billion in 2015

 

 

Page 51 -2 Tales of time

 

Introduction: The past and future of humanity

Think on: Putting humanity in its place

“If we compress the time scale such that the Earth formed one year ago, then Homo sapiens evolved less than 12 minutes ago, agriculture began a little over one minute ago, the Industrial Revolution took place less than 2 seconds ago, the electronic computer was invented 0.4 seconds ago, and the Internet less than 0.1 seconds ago – in the blink of an eye.” Nick Bostrom The Future of Humanity
(published in New Waves in Philosophy of Technology, eds. Jan-Kyrre Berg Olsen, Evan Selinger, & Soren Riis (New York: Palgrave McMillan, 2009): 186-216][Reprinted in the journal Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, Vol. 1, No. 2 (2009): 41-78]

see
Nick Bostrom http://nickbostrom.com/

Future of Humanity

http://www.nickbostrom.com/papers/future.html

Existential Risks

http://www.nickbostrom.com/existential/risks.html

 

Think on:

“What we do know,” writes distinguished historian of technology Vaclav Smil, “is that the past six generations have amounted to the most rapid and the most profound change our species has experienced in its 5,000 years of recorded history.”

See: Smil, V. (2006) Transforming the twentieth century: technical innovations and their consequences (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
This mapping of past and future humanities is of increasing interest to many. See:

Heilbroner, R. L. (1995) Visions of the future: the distant past, yesterday, today, tomorrow (New York: Oxford University Press).

Leslie, J. (1996) The End of the World: The Science and Ethics of Human Extinction (London: Routledge).

Leslie, J. (1996) The End of the World: The Science and Ethics of Human Extinction (London: Routledge).

Kurzweil, R. (2005) The singularity is near: when humans transcend biology (New York: Viking).

 

On Histories of Civilizations

In the early 1980’s, the astronomer Carl Sagan (1934-1996) presented his award-winning television series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage ( seen by more than 600 million people in over 60 countries) suggested superimposing the 15-billion-year history of our universe on the calendar of a single year. Look at:
https://www.youtube.com/user/SagansCosmos
Major civilizations of the past are documented briefly at:

http://www.ancienthistorylists.com/ancient-civilizations/10-oldest-ancient-civilizations-ever-existed/

 

It includes those of China, The Incas, The Atztecs, Ancient Sumerian, Egyptian, Classical, the Mesoamerican, and Christian Western (emerging about AD 700) in Europe, North America and Islamic (originating in the Arabian peninsula in the seventh century A.D.) and including Arab, Turkic, Persian and Malay cultures). They are often classified as:

 

  • Chinese (or Sinic)
  • Japanese (sometimes combined with China as Far Eastern Civilization)
  • Indian or Hindu
  • Islamic
  • Orthodox. centred in Russia and separate from Western Civilization
  • a (though the latter is increasingly seen on its own as
  • Latin American (Catholic and more authoritarian)
  • African.

 

I use the term BCE (Before the Common Era) which is not always clear. See

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_Era

which reads:

Common Era, abbreviated as CE, is a designation for the world’s most commonly used year-numbering system.[1][2] The numbering of years using Common Era notation is identical to the numbering used with Anno Domini (BC/AD) notation, 2010 being the current year in both notations and neither using a year zero.[3] Common Era is also known as Christian Era[4] and Current Era,[5] with all three expressions abbreviated as CE.[6] (Christian Era is, however, also abbreviated AD, for Anno Domini.[7]) Dates before the year 1 CE are indicated by the usage of BCE, short for “Before the Common Era”, “Before the Christian Era”, or “Before the Current Era”.[8] Both the BCE/CE and BC/AD notations are based on a sixth-century estimate for the year in which Jesus was conceived or born, with the common era designation originating among Christians in Europe at least as early as 1615 (at first in Latin).[9]

The Gregorian calendar, and the year-numbering system associated with it, is the calendar system with most widespread usage in the world today. For decades, it has been the de facto global standard, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations and the Universal Postal Union. There are many names in many languages used to designate this year-numbering system that originated in Western Europe. Common Era notation has been adopted in several non-Christian cultures, by many scholars in religious studies and other academic fields,[10][11] and by others wishing to be sensitive to non-Christians,[12] because Common Era does not explicitly make use of religious titles for Jesus, such as Christ and Lord, which are used in the BC/AD notation

Page 51

Charles Darwin’s (1809–1882) ideas of evolution

See a short Open University introduction at:

https://www.open.ac.uk/darwin/darwin-theory.php
Page 52
For a fascinating but controversial account of the rise of food chains in society and the emergence of different kinds of societies see Jared Diamond’s Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. 1997: which is also available on the You Tube as a controversial documentary film.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ojU31yHDqiM

For a sample discussion, see
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_rP8vkG3dmQ

There is a lot of his work to be found on the You Tube.

 

 

P52

By 3,000 BC the world’s first major civilizations started to appear; and by 500 BC world population had probably lept to 100 million: on this see Roy Porter The Enlightenment (2001) 2nd ed   page 22. Here are two earlier, short and now quite classic histories of the modern world. Well worth a look:
H.G. Wells A History of the world (1922) Penguin Reprint 2006

E.H. Gombrich A Little history of the world (1936; English edition 2005). Yale UP.

 

A good general introduction is Goran Therborn’s The World: A Beginner’s Guide (2010). A brief history of the modern Western world is Mary Evans’s A Short History of Society (2007). Patrick Nolan and Gerhard Lenski’s textbook Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology (2014, 12th ed) discusses different types of society; Robin Cohen and Paul Kennedy’s Global Sociology (2013, 3rd ed) is an excellent introduction covering a wide range of fields.

 

Page 56

As I write, in 2015, there were roughly 200 major societies in the world and some 7.3 billion people

 

Page 57

In 1999, Anthony Giddens – one of the world’s leading sociologists (certainly the UK’s most prominent at the time, and then Director of the world renowned London School of Economics) – gave a series of lectures on The Runaway World, for the annual prestigious BBC Reith Lectures. He gave these lectures across the world – in Hong Kong (on risk), in Delhi (on tradition), in Washington (on the family), and in London (on Democracy and globalisation). (You can find them all on the BBC’s web site at:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/reith1999/
See also the short book Runaway World: How Globalization is changing our lives (2002)).

 

 

Page 58 – Multiple modernities

Multiple Modernities: This is a term developed by S.N .Eisesnstadt and his full paper can be found on line. See:

http://www.havenscenter.org/files/Eisenstadt2000_MultipleModernities.pdf

Daedalus; Winter 2000; 129, 1; Research

 

  1. Here are some of the ideas of this new emerging society:
    The Post-Industrial Society. The first major suggestion and used widely between 1960 and 1990. Used by Daniel Bell, it refers to a productive system based on service work and high technology.

 

  1. The Post-History Society. Controversially put forward by Francis Fukuyama. In the wake of the collapse of communism, he argued that society had now reached its historical end point in the worldwide triumph of liberal capitalism. It was much criticised, and Fukuyama has now largely changed his position and argument.

 

  1. The Post-Modern Society. Seen as a direct challenge to Enlightenment thinking and modernity. It takes many forms – especially in culture, where ideas of fragmentation, difference and pluralism are stressed. In a weaker form, it embraces nearly all the ideas and below and recognises that the traditional, modern and post-modern worlds all live alongside each other.

 

  1. Late Modernity . Associated with Anthony Giddens, David Harvey and Jurgen Habermas. Generally do not agree with the ideas of the post-modernists as they do not see a break with the past modern world. Instead, they see late modern society as an intensification and speeding up of themes well developed in the modern world.

 

  1. Reflexive Modernity: Closely linked to ideas of late modernity, but here the stress is upon a society in which people become more aware (reflexive) about what is going on around them. For example, science no longer simply leads the way: people want to know more about what it means. They want to know about the environment, and about the risk generated by new technologies and the like.

 

  1. Liquid Society: a new form of society that is much more fluid than pervious modern and traditional ones. Everything changes, everything flows, mobilities is key. Zygmun Bauman highlights the uncertainty (unsichereit) of this world; John Urry is concerned with its global flow and complexity.

 

  1. Late Capitalism: a continuation of the themes first analysed by Marx and which can still be seen at work in so-called modern societies. But Marx’s concerns have now become amplified and are speeding up on a world wide stage.

 

  1. The Information Age/ The Network Society (Castells): a new form of society dependent upon new information technologies and networking (see Chapter 6, xx)

 

  1. The Risk Society: This is Ulrich Beck’s term for a new form of risk where uncertainty permeates society because of changes in technology, globalisation and the environment. These risks are not like the old natural risks (which still continue) (see Chapter 2xx)

 

  1. The Surveillance Society: (Foucault, Cohen): a new form of society dependent on communication and information technologies for administration and control processes and which result in the close monitoring of everyday life (see Chapter 16)

 

The list is really getting quite long. Other terms you may come across include:

  1. Post-National (Habermas)
  2. Post-Honour (Ahmed)
  3. World Risk (Beck)
  4. The Global Age (Albrow)
  5. The Cyber-Society (Haraway)
  6. The Human Rights Society
  7. The Citizenhip Society
  8. The Cosmopolitan Society (Appiah, Beck)
  9. The Mobile Society (Urry)
  10. Individualised Society (Beck)

 

All these theories suggest a new world that is emerging full of rapid change, uncertainty, risk, openness and individualism They have different emphases .Some are dark, pessimistic dystopias and others provide more optimistic, positive utopian images.

 

 

Page 59: Globalisation and glocalisation: ‘The world is one place’

 

When I wrote the first edition of this book, in 2008-9, I noted the explosion of books on globalization in the following:

 

 

Box from First Edition: Reading about globalisaton

In the 1980s and the 1990s, thousands of books were published about it: I count forty alone on my own book shelf including – to immediate hand – Pico Iyer’s The Global Soul (2000), Richard Falk’s Predatory Globalization (1999), Zygmunt Bauman’s Globalization: The Human Consequence (1998), David Held’s Global Transformations (1999), Jan Nederveen Pieterse’s Globalization and Culture (2004), Ulrich Beck’s What is Globalization?(2000), Martin Albrow’s The Global Age (1996), Jon Binnie’s The Globalization of Sexuality (2004), Mark Findlay’s The Globalisation of Crime (1999), Christa Wichtereich’s The Globalized Woman (1998) and George Ritzer’s The Globalization of Nothing (2004). This is just a rag bag, certainly not the most influential or important, but enough to indicate it has been a key theme of recent sociology.

 

I can now report a sharp decline in such books.

 

This is typical of ‘trends in sociology’ helps to establish debates– and then moves on. But this does not mean the idea has gone. Far from it : Globalization as an idea has now settled into mainstream debates. It took about 15 years to do so. Three key texts will help guide you through the voluminous writings on globalization and glocalization: Jan Nederveen Pieterse’s Globalization and Culture (2015, 3rd ed), George Ritzer Globalization: A Basic Text (2915 2nd ed) and Luke Martell, The Sociology of Globalization (2010). More specifically, see the works of Ulrich Beck (1986, 2000, 2006, 2008, 2013).
Page 60

 

In a celebrated, classic and much quoted account, the anthropologist Arjun Appadurai (1996) has helpfully captured globalisation as a series of flows across the world. The world is moving and he sees it as a series of shifting ‘landscapes’ or horizons and perspectives. There are five major ‘scapes’ which he locates as:

  • Finanscapes, through which flows of money and capital cross the world
  • Ethnoscapes, where people constitute the shifting worlds we live in, such as tourists, immigrants, refugees, exiles, guest workers etc., who ‘flow’ across the globe
  • Mediascapes, where media messages, information, images, film, satellite communications and digital records flow through spaces across the world
  • Technoscapes, where technologies of all kinds – from atomic bombs and the Human Genome Project to discmen and computer games – glide through global spaces
  • Ideoscapes, where ideas, messages and ideologies move through different countries.

You can find his web site at:
http://www.arjunappadurai.org/

 

 

Page 59: Inequalities
There is much more to be found on all this in Chapter 7. The following books are of interest:

Thomas Piketty Capital in the Twenty First Century (2014)

Credit Suisse (2015) Global Wealth DataBook, Zurich: Credit Suisse Research Institute

Oxfam Wealth: Having it all and wanting more (2015)

Other modern classics much discussed are:

Anthony Atkinson Inequality (2015)

Angus Deaton, The Great Escape (2013)
Danny Dorling, Inequality (2015)

Kate Pickett & Richard Wilkinson The Spirit Level (2009/2015)
Paul Collier (2007) The Bottom Billion

Joseph Stilgitz The Price of Inequality (2012)

 

Page 60- Population

Our human population has septupled (increased sevenfold) in a mere two centuries — from approximately 1 billion in 1800 to more than 7 billion today.
For recent population data: see United Nation Population at

United Nations World Population Prospects

http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/

See also:

Source: UN The World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision
See: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Publications/Files/Key_Findings_WPP_2015.pdf

 

Watch the You Tube Lecture by Sarah Harper on Ageing and World Population at

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8rZC2dJQN_g

and

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JpsYA4G9uP0

 

World Population and Ageing, see:

http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/ageing/WorldPopulationAgeing2013.pdf

 

See also: United Nations Populations Statistics

http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm

http://www.un.org/popin/wdtrends

 

Population Reference Bureau

http://www.prb.org/

 

UNFPA

http://www.unfpa.org/

 

 

Page 61
For two recent popular account of population problems.

See:

Danny Dorling Population 10 Billion (2013);

Fred Pearce   Peoplequake: Mass Migration, Ageing Nations and the Coming Population Crash 2010 Eden Project Books
For a selection of films on the population crisis, see

http://www.imdb.com/list/ls056962359/

See Critical Mass: 2012

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2261427/

 

Page 62 Cities

The most recent United Nations Report on the State of the World’s Cities 2015 can be found on:

http://unhabitat.org/world-cities-report-2015-nearing-completion/

UN Habitat

http://unhabitat.org/

World Urbanization Prospects

http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/default.aspx

 

Major agglomerations of the world

http://www.citypopulation.de/world/Agglomerations.html

 

A major film to see about slums is

The Fourth World: A Billion People at the Bottom of the Pile

http://fourthworldfilm.com/film-trailer/f building understanding.

Popular films about the city: see

https://nextcity.org/daily/entry/the-top-12-movies-about-urbanism

 

By contrast, see the discussion on the Urban Age Electric City by John Urry where he lays out some of the possible scenarios for the future: at

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0UxAOhxOLYU

Page 64 – 69: On the Economic Crisis of Capitalism
Films on the 2008 Financial Crash include:
Inside Job (2010) dir Charles Ferguson

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1645089/

Capitalism : A Love Story (2009) dir Michael Moore

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1232207/

Too Big To Fail (2011) dir Curtis Hanson

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1742683/

The Flaw (2010) dir David Sinton

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1787810/
As well as

Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room (2005) dir Alex Ribney

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1016268/

 

 

Web Sites
A lively introduction to the issues here are :
The Precariat

See Guy Standing: his book A Precariat Charter and he discusses all this on:
“A Precariat Charter: From Denizens to Citizens”, a Seminar with Guy Standing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGLSGeqF1Po

On the idea of Offhsoring, see:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DKHdG67C_zY
For highly readable critical introductions to a range of issues here, see
New Internationalist:
Capitalism: Is it spinning out of control?

July /August 2915 No 484

http://newint.org/features/2015/07/01/july-aug-capitalism-keynote/

 

Day of the Zombies: Global Banking Now

May 2015 No 482

http://newint.org/issues/2015/05/01/
Economic Myths that we need to junk.
December 2015 No 488

http://newint.org/issues/2015/12/01/

 

On the Sociology of the economy: see

 

  • Karin Knorr Cetina and Alex Preda, The Sociology of Financial Markets. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006.
  • Andrew Gamble, The Spectre at the Feast. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2009.
  • Michel Foucault, The Birth of Biopolitics. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2008.
  • Nicholas Gane, Max Weber and Contemporary Capitalism. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2012.
  • Friedrich Hayek, Individualism and Economic Order. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948.
  • Donald MacKenzie, Material Markets. Oxford: Blackwell, 2008.
  • Philip Mirowski, Never Let a Serious Crisis Go To Waste. London: Verso, 2013.
  • Jamie Peck, Constructions of Neoliberal Reason. Oxford: Oxford, University Press, 2010.
  • Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation. New York: Beacon, 2002.
  • Neil Smelser and Richard Swedberg, The Handbook of Economic Sociology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005.
  • Wolfgang Streeck, Politics in the Age of Austerity. Cambridge: Polity, 2013.
  • Max Weber and the Idea of Economic Sociology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.
  • Richard Swedberg, Principles of Economic Sociology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007.
  • Max Weber, Economy and Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.

 

Laying out some of the groundwork for a Sociological / Humanist Economics

 

Boulding, Kenneth. 1966. “The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth” in H. Jarrett (ed.), Environmental Quality in a Growing Economy, pp. 3-14. Resources for the Future/Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

Hardin, Garrett. 1968. “Tragedy of the Commons.Science, volume 162, pages 1243-1248.

Mill, John Stuart. 1848. “Of the Stationary State,” Book IV, Chapter VI in Principles of Political Economy: With Some of Their Applications to Social Philosophy, J.W. Parker, London, England.

Schumacher, E.F. 1966. “Buddhist Economics” in Guy Wint (ed.), Asia: A Handbook, Anthony Blond Ltd., London, U.K.

Vitousek, Peter, Paul Ehrlich, Anne Ehrlich, and Pam Matson. 1986. Human Appropriation of the Products of Photosynthesis. Bioscience 36:368-373.

 

 

The New (Humanist) Economics

 

Critical Economics

 

Ha-Joon Chang 23 Things They Don’t Tell You About Economics (2010) Allen Lane

 

Ha-Joon Change Economics: The User’s Guide (2014) Pelican
Rod Hill and Tony Myatt   The Economics Anti-Text Book 2010 Zed
Steve Keen Debunking Economics 2nd edition 2011 2nd ed Zed

Piketty
John F Weeks Economics of the 1%: How Mainstream Economics Serves the Rich, Osbcures Reality and Distorts Policy. 2014. London: Anthem Books

 

John Quiggley Zombie Economics 2012 Princeton

 

Batker, D. & de Graaf, J. (2011). What’s the Economy For, Anyway? New York: Bloomsbury Press.

 

Boyle, D., & Simms, A. (2009). The new economics: A bigger picture. London: Earthscan.

 

Economics of the Undead (2014)

 

Marianna Mazzucoto The Entreprenurial State (2013)

 

Moving towards a better (heterodox) economics

 

David Boyle The Human Element (2011) Routledge ( organizational)

 

— with Andrew Simms The New Economics : A Bigger Picture (2009) Earthscan

 

see: http://www.david-boyle.co.uk/

 

 

Tim Jackson Prosperity without growth:Economics for a Finite Planet (2009) earthscan   (ecological macroeconomics)

 

http://www.timjackson.org.uk/

 

Amyrya Sen   The Idea of Justice (2011)

 

Polemics by respected economists

 

Paul Krugman End this Depression Now (2013)

 

Joseph Stiglitz The Stiglitz Report (2011)

 

The Price of Inequality (2013)

 

With Amaytya Sen Mismeasuring Our Lives (2011) The New Press

 

Geoff Tilly Keynes Betrayed 2010 Palgrave

 

Michael Meacher   The State We Need 2013 Biteback

 

Will Hutton How Good We Can Be (2015)

 

John de Graaf & David Batker What’s the economy for, anyway (2012) Bloomsbury

 

 

Philip Mirowski Never Let a Serious Crisis Go to waste: How Neoliberalism survived the Financial Meltdown (2013) Verso

 

And the politics:

Wolfgang Streeck, Politics in the Age of Austerity. Cambridge: Polity, 2013.
A number of UK economists give their views at:

“The Importance of Elections for UK Economic Activity” March 28th 2015

http://cfmsurvey.org/surveys/importance-elections-uk-economic-activity

 

 

Page 69- Digital and Media

 

For a straightforward social history of the media, see

Asa Briggs and Peter Burke Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet 3rd edition 2010   Polity Press

For a more theoretical and influential work, see the ideas of Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980) The Media is the Massage (1967)

And look at this official web site:

http://www.marshallmcluhan.com/

 

On contemporary media ownership, see
Eli M Noam Who owns the world’s media? (2016)

 

For critical works on modern media, see

Christian Fuchs   http://fuchs.uti.at/

http://fuchs.uti.at/papers/critical-studies-of-media-and-information/

 

 

For recent developments and issues, see:

 

Abercrombie, Nicholas, and Brian Longhurst. 1998. Audiences : A sociological theory of performance and imagination. London: Sage.

Couldry, Nick. 2003. Media rituals: A critical approach. Oxon: Routledge.

Couldry, Nick. 2012. Media, society, world: Social theory and digital media practice. Malden Polity Press.

Hepp, Andreas. 2012. Cultures of mediatization. Malden: Polity Press.

Kellner, Douglas. 2003. Media spectacle. London: Routledge.

Turner, Graeme. 2010. Ordinary people and the media: The demotic turn. London: Sage.

van Dijck, José. 2013a. The culture of connectivity: A critical history of social media. Oxford: Oxford

University Press.

 

p70

 

What is digital freedom?

What is the Digital Freedom Foundation?

http://www.dff.org.in/

 

See

Democracy in the Digital Era: Freedom, transparency and privacy

New Internationalist

Jan/Feb 2015

http://newint.org/features/2015/01/01/democracy-digital-era-keynote/

 

Citizen Four (2014)

An award documentary about Edward Snowden:

See
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt4044364/

http://www.theguardian.com/film/2015/feb/23/edward-snowden-documentary-citizenfour-wins-oscar

 

Edward Snowden: terminal F Documentary

On You Tube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nd6qN167wKo

 

Page 73-5 The Environment

 

Films on the Environment

There are several listings of environmental films: see

Top Ten Environmental films of all time

http://www.mnn.com/green-tech/research-innovations/blogs/top-10-environmental-films-of-all-time

15 Green Movies

http://grist.org/article/movies/

For Documentary Films on the environment, see:

http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/category/environment/

For fiction films on the environment, see:
http://ecohearth.com/eco-zine/arts-and-culture/1625-green-movies-best-environmental-films-fictional-features.html

 

A classic documentary is

 

Al Gore An Inconvenient Truth (2006)

See also:

Erin Brockovitch, Steven Soderbergh, 2000

 

The writing on all this is vast: but see

Rob Nixon Slow Violence and the Environment ( 2013) Harvard University Press

There are a lot web sites to search:
United Nations Environment Project (UNEP)

http://www.unep.org/

 

United Nations and Climate Change

http://www.unep.org/about/

 

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

http://www.ipcc.ch/

 

World Watch Institute

http://www.worldwatch.org/

 

World Earth Resources: Earth Trends

http://earthtrends.wri.org/

 

Greenpeace

http://www.greenpeace.org/international/

 

World Environmental Websites

http://www.apec-vc.or.jp/

 

People and Planet

http://www.peopleandplanet.net/

 

Encyclopedia of Earth

http://www.eoearth.org/

an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society

 

DEFRA

https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/department-for-environment-food-rural-affairs

 

A key book to read is:
John Urry (2011) Climate Change and Society:
Page 74

 

On the claim that “Some 90 major corporations produce nearly two thirds of gas emissions since the dawn of the industrial age”, see: Richard Heede ‘Tracing anthropogenic carbon dioxide and methane emissions to fossil fuel and cement producers, 1854–2010’ Climatic Change (2014) 122:229241

 

 

Page 75   Science

 

Toby Huff examines the long-standing question of why modern science arose only in the West and not in the civilizations of Islam and China, despite the fact that medieval Islam and China were more scientifically advanced. Huff explores the cultural contexts within which science was practiced in Islam, China, and the West. He finds major clues in the history of law and the European cultural revolution of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, as to why the ethos of science arose in the West and permitted the breakthrough to modern science that did not occur elsewhere.

 

Toby Huff The Rise of Modern Science. (1995) Cambridge University Press . page 55

 

Page 76

 

For an account of contemporary bureaucracy and its manifestations in auditing and quality assurance: Max Travers The New Bureaucracy: Quality Assurance and its critics 2007 Policy

For a defense of bureaucracy in the modern world, see:

Paul du Gay   In Praise of Bureaucracy 2000   Sage

 

 

Page 76 Transhuman and LIVING IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY: The Politics of Life Itself
In his book, The Politics of Life itself, the sociologist Nikolas Rose concludes claims that “ new spaces are emerging for the politics of life in the twenty-first century” (2007:8). He argues that somewhere in the twentieth century – as the new ‘biotechnology revolution’ was taking place, a new politics has quietly entered our lives. It is one that is being shaped by biologists of all stripes. As he says: “in all manner of small ways, most of which will soon be routinized and taken for granted, things will not be quite the same again”. What are these new politics?

 

Rose draws from the earlier work of Michael Foucault (see Chapter 17) who was interested in the new ways in which the body was surveyed and disciplined. We saw this in the case of the developing prison with its rules. Rose contends that the new biology has more recently taken over. He suggests five emerging pathways are shaping our lives. These are:

 

1The significance now given to the biological molecule as a bed rock of social life (eg in the Human Genome Project) .

2The hope and belief we now have that biology will help us get the best possible future we can

3The development of a new idea what it means to be human – which puts our bodily existence at the centre of thinking. Here we start to find the significance of what might be called ‘biological citizenship’.

4The importance of a wide array of new experts of the body – ranging from stem cell researchers and genetic counsellors to the pharamaceutical industry and the arrival of ‘bioethicsts’.

5The development of new markets that can cash in on all this. A new form of economy – the pharmaceutical industry, the market in body parts.

(Like many sociologists, Rose gives these processes a complex terminology. In his language, these developing social processes display molecularization, optimization, subjectification, somatic expertiose and econcomies of vitality).

 

We now live in the middle of the making of multiple new histories with no clear sense of where we might be heading. We have already witnessed it in the way many of us now take for granted the tools of EEG’s, PET and CAT scans, and MRI exams in hospitals. But here now are major new worlds of genetic screening, genetic therapy, body part donation and transplantation, drug control and a massive pscyhopharmaceutical industry. All kinds of changes in the regulation of our bodies are taking place.

 

For Nikolas Rose, the future lies in grasping what he calls ‘biocapital’ and the new ‘ mutations in biopower’, grasping the new emphasis on treating disease susceptibilities rather than disease;

It will lead to a shift in our understanding of the patient and the emergence of new forms of medical activism. A new conceptions of “biological citizenship” is taking shape that recode the duties, rights, and expectations of what it means to be a human beings and which is reshape the ways in which human beings relate to each other and their bodies. Contemporary politics will increasingly call `life itself’ into question.

Take a look at Nikolas Rose talking about all this and more on the You Tube at:

Engineering Selfhood in the 21st Century
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3r87Vx-Jw0E

 

 

Page 76 Surveillance

 

See the web site

Statewatch

http://www.statewatch.org/

 

For an introduction to the problems of surveillance, see the work of David Lyon:
Surveillance Society 2001 Open University

Theorizing Surveillance 2006 Willan

Surveillance Studies 2007 Polity

And most recently:

Surveillance after Snowden 2015 Polity

 

You can see him talk about Surveillance on the You Tube at

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sRRl9cpVHy0

and watch others in the series it is part of.

 

Multiple books and films have been produced about this surveillance world. Popular films include: The Net (1995), Gattaca (2007), The Lives of Others (2006), Minority Report (2002), and The Truman Show (1998).

A good source of academic studies is Ball, Lyon, and Haggerty, eds. 2012. The Routledge Handbook of Surveillance Studies. See also the web sites for Surveillance Studies Net: http://www.surveillance-studies.net/ and State Watch: http://www.statewatch.org/

 

 

Page 78 Religion
For an overview of religions, see Adherents:

http://www.adherents.com/
A major report on Religions and their future populations can be fpund at:
Pew Centre (2015) The Future of World Religions: Population Growth 2010-2050.

http://www.pewforum.org/files/2015/03/PF_15.04.02_ProjectionsFullReport.pdf
see also : http://www.pewforum.org/2015/04/02/religious-projections-2010-2050/‎

published in August 2015

This report describes how the global religious landscape would change if current demographic trends continue. With each passing year, however, there is a chance that unforeseen events – war, famine, disease, technological innovation, political upheaval, etc. – will alter the size of one religious group or another. Owing to the difficulty of peering more than a few decades into the future, the projections stop at 2050.

  • The number of Muslims will nearly equal the number of Christians around the world.
  • Atheists, agnostics and other people who do not affiliate with any religion – though increasing in countries such as the United States and France – will make up a declining share of the world’s total population.
  • The global Buddhist population will be about the same size it was in 2010, while the Hindu and Jewish populations will be larger than they are today.
  • In Europe, Muslims will make up 10% of the overall population.
  • India will retain a Hindu majority but also will have the largest Muslim population of any country in the world, surpassing Indonesia.
  • In the United States, Christians will decline from more than three-quarters of the population in 2010 to two-thirds in 2050, and Judaism will no longer be the largest non-Christian religion. Muslims will be more numerous in the U.S. than people who identify as Jewish on the basis of religion.
  • Four out of every 10 Christians in the world will live in sub-Saharan Africa.
See also:
Global Religion in the 21st Century

Finding different religions’ places in an interconnected world.

By Mark Jeurgensmeyer, Dinah Griego and John Soboslai
February 2016

http://www.utne.com/politics/global-religion-ze0z1602zdeh.aspx

 

A good introduction to the sociology of religion is:

Phil Zuckerman   Invitation to the Sociology of Religion   2003 Routledge

 

A guide to the world’s conflicts is

Mark Juergensmeyer   Global Rebellion: Religious Challenges to the Secular State 2008 University of California

 

Page 79-81   Social Movements

 

Page 80. The sociologists Charles Tilly died in 2008. There is a memorial web site for him (which contains a lot of details and links to his work) at:

http://essays.ssrc.org/tilly/resources

see also some You Tube interviews with him on his work at:

Charles Tilly interviewed

https://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=73ABDF5D9781DF91

 

 

On Manuel Castells,

http://www.manuelcastells.info/en
Here are some of the key works on Digital Activism that are mentioned in the section:
On ‘web activism’ (Dartnell, M. Y. (2015) Insurgency Online: Web Activism and Global Conflict (2015) University of Toronto Press

On ‘online activism’ (McCaughey, M) (2014) Cyberactivism on the Participatory Web, London: Routledge.

On ‘cyberprotest’ (Pickerill, J (2010) Cyberprotest: Environmental Activism Online, Manchester University Press

On ‘liberation technology’ Diamond, L. (2012) Liberation Technology: Social Media and the Struggle for Democracy. John Hopkins University

On ‘digital rebellion’ (Wolfson, T (2014) Digital Rebellion: The Birth of the Cyber Left University of Illinois Press

On the ‘People’s Platform’ (Taylor, A (2014) The People’s Platforms: And Other Digital Delusions.   Fourth Estate.

On ‘information politics’ (Jordan, T (2015) Information Politics: Liberation and exploitation in the Digital Society. Pluto Press.

 

See also:

Imogen Tyler Revolting Subjects (2013, Zed Books) which looks at UK local activisms like eviction, the poor and asylum seeking:
An Amazon Blurb says:

Revolting Subjects is a groundbreaking account of social abjection in contemporary
Britain, exploring the processes through which specific populations are figured as ‘revolting’ as well as the practices through which these populations ‘revolt’ against their subjectification. The book utilises a number of high-profile and in-depth case studies – including ‘chavs’, asylum seekers, Gypsies, anarchists and the disabled – to examine the ways in which individuals and groups negotiate restrictive, neoliberal ideologies of selfhood. In doing so, Tyler argues for a deeper psycho-social understanding of the role of aesthetic and representational forms in producing marginality, social exclusion and injustice, whilst also showing how it can be a creative resource for resistance.

Imaginative and original, Revolting Subjects introduces a range of new insights into neoliberal societies, and will be essential reading for those concerned about widening inequalities, growing social unrest and social justice in the wider global context.

See:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jbI5yUbWQHQ

 

 

Page 81

I give the following quote:

“Since 3600 BCE, it has been estimated that some 14,500 major wars have been waged, killing some four bil-lion people “ See: Conway W. Henderson (9 February 2010). Understanding International Law. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 212–. ISBN 978-1-4051-9764-9. That said, I do find such statistics a bit of a problem. Matthew White’s Atrictology is full of such numbers. I cannot be sure of any of them. But we can conclude I think: a hell of a lot of wars and a hell of lot of people killed!

 

Page 81 On Violence

 

The most discussed book on violence in our time is undoubtedly the highly readable book by Steven Pinker:

Pinker, S. (2012) The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined, New York: Viking Books.

See an update on it at:
http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/sep/11/news-isis-syria-headlines-violence-steven-pinker

 

Pinker is not a sociologist but a socio biologist. He also is very keen that academics should write better! He is indeed a good writer himself (unlike most academics), and his book is a good read. One reason perhaps for its huge success!

 

Look at Pinker’s own web site

http://stevenpinker.com/

where you will find a great deal – reviews of his work, podcasts, and a page which keeps a tally of our progress on violence. See

 

For one of many critiques of Pinker; see John Gray

John Gray “Steven Pinker is wrong about violence and war” Guardian. 13th March 2015. See:

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/mar/13/john-gray-steven-pinker-wrong-violence-war-declining

 

It has been reviewed very critically by sociologists. See the symposium on his book featured in the leading British sociology journal, Sociology 47 (6) p1224-1232

http://soc.sagepub.com/content/47/6/1224.extract

 

 

Page 82   Terrorism

For a listing of films on Terrorism
http://www.imdb.com/list/ls000912041/

See:
Paradise Now (2005) Hany Abu-Assad
The Battle for Algiers, 1966 Gillo Potecorvo

Munich (205) Steven Spielberg

United 93 ( (2006) Paul Greengrass

 

Page 84
Nations
On nations, see:

Anthony D Smith: Nationalism 2001 Polity

His later works include: The Cultural Foundations of Nations 2008 Blackwell

Steven Grosby          Nationalism: A very short introduction 2005 Oxford

 

 

Page 85 Migration

 

A list of films (72 of them) about immigrants and migration can be found at:
http://www.imdb.com/list/ls051658814/

 

See also:

https://strengtheningasylum.wordpress.com/2015/10/21/13-powerful-films-about-refugees-you-need-to-see/

 

https://uk.pinterest.com/uscri/movies-and-films-about-refugees-and-immigrants/

 

https://mubi.com/lists/films-about-immigrants

 

Look too at films about Europe’s Immigration Crisis at:

https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/voices/europe-s-migration-crossing-points-captured-six-films#
See also

 

The UN Refugee Agency
UNHCR (2015) World at War/ Global Trends, Forced Displacement 2014

http://www.unhcr.org/558193896.html

 

Katy Long (2015) The Huddled Masses: Immigration and Inequality.

See Katy Long: https://www.opendemocracy.net/author/katy-long

 

 

Page 86

 

On Displacement and ‘Fragile States’

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre

www.internal-displacement.org

The IDMC’s Global Overview 2015 reported that the majority of the increase in new displacement during 2014 was the result of protracted crises in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Nigeria, South Sudan and Syria. These five countries accounted for 60 per cent of new displacement worldwide.

 

On Fragile States, see

http://fsi.fundforpeace.org/rankings-2015

http://reliefweb.int/report/world/fragile-states-index-2015
‘Fragile states’ are states where one third of all people surviving on less than $1.25 per day live, half of the world’s children die before the age of five, and one third of maternal deaths occur. They include

  • post-conflict/crisis or political transition situations
  • deteriorating governance environments
  • situations of gradual improvement and
  • situations of prolonged crisis or impasse

 

An estimated 446 million people live in fragile and conflict-affected states (FCS). These states are poorer, with slower economic growth rates and higher population growth rates than other countries. Recent research has identified the stark relationship between fragility and poverty (Collier 2007) and drawn attention to the repeated cycles of violence that pervade these countries (World Bank 2011). Chronic insecurity due to such violence is one of the biggest threats to development in the 21st century.

 

 

 

Page 86 On cosmopolitanism

On Cosmpolitanism

What is Cosmopolitanism?

 

For the Ghanian-American philosopher Kwame Anthony Appiah, in his book Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a world of Strangers ( 2006)) it is a ‘universal concern and respect for legitimate difference’ (Appiah,2006:xv). For the Swedish anthropologist Ulf Hannerz (in Ulf Hannerz   Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places.( 1996) it is ‘a mode of managing meaning’ ‘ a willingness to engage with the other’. ‘It entails an intellectual and aesthetic openness toward divergent cultural experiences, a search for contrasts rather than uniformity. ……(It is) a state of readiness: an ability to make one’s way into other cultures, through listening, looking, intuiting and reflecting (Hannerz: 1996: p103). For the German sociologist Ulrich Beck (who is at the forefront of sociological writers in this field) we have arrived at the ‘cosmopolitan moment’ as an emergent and distinctive feature of modernity: ‘the human condition has itself become cosmopolitan’. We live with the ideas that ‘local, national, ethnic, religious and cosmopolitan cultures and traditions interpenetrate, interconnect and intermingle – cosmopolitanism without provincialism is empty, provincialism without cosmopolitanism is blind’ (Beck Cosmopolitan Vision 2006:p7). For the British sociologist, Robert Fine, cosmopolitanism is bound up deeply with international law and human rights. Indeed, cosmopolitanism is both ‘a determinate social form’ which ‘reconfigures’ a whole sphere of (potentially contradictory) rights as well as being a ‘form of consciousness that involves an understanding of the concept of cosmopolitanism and a capacity to develop the concept in imaginative and reflexive’. He sees it as both outlook (a way of seeing the world) and a condition ( an existing form of the world) (In Cosmopolitanism p 111, 134.) Finally, for the influential US feminist philosopher Martha Nussbaum, it raises the issue of a ‘decent world culture’ and a world moral community:

 

If our world is to be a decent world in the future, we must acknowledge right now that we are citizens of one interdependent world, held together by mutual fellowship as well as the pursuit of mutual advantage, by compassion as well as self interest, by a love of human dignity, in all people, even when there is nothing to gain from cooperating with them. Or rather even when we have to gain the biggest thing of all: participation in a just and morally decent world. Martha Nussbaum Frontiers of Justice 2006: p324

 

 

 

Pages 87- 89

 

On General Monitoring of the State of the World

 

FROM THE BOOK – TO MATCH:

  • Societies: search The World Bank; The CIA Factbook; United Nations; NationMaster; New Internationalist: Human Millenium Development Reports
  • Populations: search United Nations World Population Reports (UNFPA); World Population Prospects and Projections.
  • Cities: search UNhabitat; World Urbanization Prospects; State of the World.
  • Economic development: search United Nations; OECD
  • Poverty: search World Bank Poverty Net; Global Issues
  • Environment: search World Watch Institute; World Resources Institute: IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change); UNEP( United Nations Environmental Panel); Defra UK (Departmentfor Environment, Food and Rural Affairs); Peopleandplanet (Student activism)
  • Human rights: search Amnesty International; Human Rights Watch; Map of United Nations Indicators on Rights; ILGA (International Lesbian and Gay Rights)
  • Violence, war, terrorism, genocides: search Global Peace Index; Terrorism Index; Vision of Humanity; Genocide Watch; Stockholm Peace Research Institute
  • Migrations, refugees and displaced people: search United Nations High Commisioner for refugees (UNHCR); Refugee International
  • Political freedom and democracy: search Global Democracy Ranking; Freedom House
  • Religions: search Adherents
  • Languages: search Ethnologue
  • Values: search World Values Survey
  • Maps: search World Atlas; Google Maps; com
  • Human Flourishing: search UN Human Development Index; World Happiness Report; Human Security Index; Happy Planet Index.

A quick guide to all this is Economist (2015) Pocket World in Figures 25th edition.

 

 

Here are some of the major Website links referred to in the text:

 

World Bank

http://www.worldbank.org/

 

CIA Fact Book

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/

 

United Nations

http://www.un.org/en/

 

Nation Master

http://www.nationmaster.com/index.php

 

New Internationalist

http://www.newint.org/

 

UNFPA

http://www.unfpa.org/public/

 

UN Habitat

http://www.unhabitat.org/

 

OECD

http://www.oecd.org/

 

Poverty Net

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTPOVERTY/0,,menuPK:336998~pagePK:149018~piPK:149093~theSitePK:336992,00.html

 

UN Millenium Goals

http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/

 

Human Development Index

http://hdr.undp.org/en/

 

Global Issues

http://www.globalissues.org/

 

Oneworld

http://uk.oneworld.net/article/view/157848 ( as of September 10 2010)

World Watch
http://www.worldwatch.org/

 

Human Rights Watch

http://www.hrw.org/

 

 

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: The UN Refugee Agency

http://www.unhcr.org.uk/
Genocide watch

http://www.genocidewatch.org/

Political freedom: Freedom House

http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=1

 

Political corruption: Transparency International

http://www.transparency.org.uk/

 

Religion: Adherents
http://www.adherents.com/

ttp://www.religioustolerance.org/var_rel.htm

 

Languages of the World

http://www.ethnologue.com/

 

Languages and literacy

http://www.unesco.org/en/literacy/

 

World Values Survey

http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/

 

(Global Gender Gap

State of the World’s Children
Page 89 On Imaginaries

 

Charles Taylor sees the social imaginary as ‘the ways people imagine their social existence, how they fit together with others, how things go on between them and their fellows, the expectations that are normally met, and the deep normative notions and images that underlies these expectations” (2003: p23).

Charles Taylor Modern Social Imaginaries 2003, Duke
http://www.cjsonline.ca/reviews/socialimaginaries.html
http://ant.sagepub.com/content/6/3/322.abstract
John Thompson says the imagnary is the “The creative and symbolic dimensions of the social world through which people live their collective images of life” (Studies in the Theory of Ideology, 1984, page 6).

 

The idea derives from Cornelius Castoriades, 1975, The Imaginary Institution of Society. 1975. It enables us to see how people can imagine their lives as a whole. The idea can work to help clarify boundaries and horizons, limits and possibilities. Utopian imaginaries might lead to the emancipation of individuals from entrenched institutions?
Emergence

 

experiments

 

 

 

Page 90 Bad News

 

Wasted lives

On PRISONS

 

PRISON

See Global Prison Reform 2015

Published by Penal Reform International

The size of the world’s prison population has increased by 10% since 2004.

It is estimated that more than 10.2 million people, including sentenced and pre-trial prisoners, were held in penal institutions worldwide (from data available in October 2013). 144 out of every 100,000 people of the world were therefore in prison at that time.24

Prison populations are growing in all five continents. In the last 15 years the estimated world prison population has increased by some 25-30 per cent but at the same time the world population has risen by over 20 per cent. The world prison population rate has risen by about six per cent from 136 per 100,000 of the world population to the current rate of 144.25


THE US SITUATION
Half of the world’s prison population of about nine million is held in the US, China or Russia.

Prison rates in the US are the world’s highest, at 724 people per 100,000. In Russia the rate is 581.
At 145 per 100,000, the imprisonment rate of England and Wales is at about the midpoint worldwide.Many of the lowest rates are in developing countries, but overcrowding can be a serious problem. Kenyan prisons have an occupancy level of 343.7%

1 in every 15 African American men and I in every 36 Hispanic men are imprisoned in comparison to in every 106 white men – people of colour make up 30 % of the population, but 60% of those imprisoned…. Indeed the Bureau of Justice Statistics suggests that one in three black men can expect to go to prison in their life time….. and can expect to have longer sentences…. But they are also likely to go to poorer schools with lower expectations and face harsher punishments than their white peers – the young have higher arrest rate sof arrest, incarcerations and

Women of colour are also more likely to be 3 x more than white women in prison


SEE: Mass Incarceration on Trial
, it was published last year. Marie Gottschalk’s Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics

 

Page 91 On Millenium goals and Sustainable goals
An account of MDG and SDG is clearly presented on the You Tube at:

sustainable development goals youtube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NkAv9L1_r1M

 

The United Nations Millennium Development Project which established some eight goals to be achieved between 2000-2015. Goals have been one of the most successful programs in UN history.

 

See it on You Tube at:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ReRx12QUv54
Page 92 Sustainable Development Goals

 

Jeffrey Sachs speaks about these Development Goals on the You Tube at

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vw5flPS_kK8

 

For a more critical view: see William Easterly speaking about what they have not really been successfully in Africa

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1N7dNd4ghuU

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iWXmsgoxgE0

 

In 2015, a new list has been created of goals to take us to 2015. The final list, to be agreed at the UN General Assembly in September 2015, will address the world’s biggest problems. The goals could direct at least US$700 billion in foreign aid, representing a great 1-in-15 year opportunity to catalyze enormous positive change by 2030

 

These are:
1) End poverty in all its forms everywhere

2) End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture

3) Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages

4) Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

5) Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

6) Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

7) Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

8) Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all

9) Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialisation, and foster innovation

10) Reduce inequality within and among countries

11) Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

12) Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

13) Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts (taking note of agreements made by the UNFCCC forum)

14) Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

15) Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification and halt and reverse land degradation, and halt biodiversity loss

16) Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

17) Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalise the global partnership for sustainable development

There are now some 17 goals and 169 targets for the SDG. The goals could direct at least US$700 billion in foreign aid towards positive change by 2030. Amongst the goals are such things as: ‘End poverty in all its forms everywhere’ ‘Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages’ ‘Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls’ ‘Reduce inequality within and among countries’ ‘promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all’ Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

Grand goals: time will tell.

Within the goals are 169 targets, to put a bit of meat on the bones. Targets under goal one, for example, include reducing by at least half the number of people living in poverty by 2030, and eradicating extreme poverty (people living on less than $1.25 a day). Under goal five, there’s a target on eliminating violence against women, while goal 16 has a target to promote the rule of law and equal access to justice.

Page 92-3
What the Nobel Prize winning economist Angus Deaton calls ‘The wellbeing of the world’. – ‘’all the things that are good for a person, that make for a good life’ ( Deaton, p24) – but this surely raises problems. What is good for a person, may not make a good life? And may not make a good society?

 

 

Page

 

Happiness and flourishing
Nik Marks on speaks positively on The Happy Planet Index

http://www.ted.com/talks/nic_marks_the_happy_planet_index?language=en

 

William Davies, in his book The Happiness Industry (2015) is more crtical:
“In a fascinating investigation combining history, science and ideas, William Davies shows how well-being influences all aspects of our lives: business, finance, marketing and smart technology. This book will make you rethink everything from the way you work, the power of the ‘Nudge’, the ever-expanding definitions of depression, and the commercialization of your most private feelings. The Happiness Industry is a shocking and brilliantly argued warning about the new religion of the age: our emotions”.

 

Here are more web sites that provide entrances to these debates:

Web Sites on Humanism, Human Flourishing and Common Grounds

Human Development and Capabilities Association (HDCA)

“is a global community of academics and practitioners that seeks to build an intellectual community around the ideas of human development and the capability approach, and relate these ideas to the policy arena.  The association promotes research within many disciplines, ranging from economics to philosophy, development studies, health, education, law, government, sociology, and more. Our members live in over 70 countries worldwide

https://hd-ca.org/

Search for Common Ground: Understanding differences, working on commonalities

“Founded in 1982, Search for Common Ground works to transform the way the world deals with conflict – away from adversarial approaches and towards collaborative problem solving. We work with local partners to find culturally appropriate means to strengthen societies’ capacity to deal with conflicts constructively: to understand the differences and act on the commonalities. Using innovative tools and working at different levels of society, we engage in pragmatic long-term processes of conflict transformation. Our toolbox includes media production – radio, TV, film and print – mediation and facilitation, training, community organizing, sports, theater and music. We promote both individual and institutional change and are committed to measuring the results of our work and increase our effectiveness through monitoring and evaluation. We currently work in 26 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East.”

http://www.sfcg.org/sfcg/sfcg_intro.html

Happy Planet Index

http://www.happyplanetindex.org/about/

“The HPI measures what matters: the extent to which countries deliver long, happy, sustainable lives for the people that live in them. The Index uses global data on life expectancy, experienced well-being and Ecological Footprint to calculate this.

The index is an efficiency measure, it ranks countries on how many long and happy lives they produce per unit of environmental input.

The 2012 HPI report ranks 151 countries and is the third time the index has been published.

-See more at: http://www.happyplanetindex.org/about/#sthash.CCyKAzjx.dpuf
Happy Planet Index

Well Being Index

And World Happiness Reports

 

Human Development Index….
Conclusions:
Thinking of the past and future

 

Here are several discussions about the past and future to listen to:

 

21st Century Challenges

http://21stcenturychallenges.org/

 

21st Century Challenges considers the big social, environmental and economic challenges of our time. Join us at events; read articles and commentary informed by the latest geographical research; be inspired, think critically, build your networks and share your ideas. It is run by the Royal Geographical Society.

 

Steven Pinker who argues we have become less violent:
http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2012/11/podcast-steven-pinker-on-violence-and-human-nature/

 

Sarah Harper on the changing population and the rise of an ageing population

http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2014/08/sarah-harper-on-the-population-challenge-for-the-21st-century/

 

Will Davies who is critical of what he calls ‘The Happiness Industry’.

http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2015/09/william-davies-on-the-happiness-industry/

For the full Human Development Index 2015 see

http://hdr.undp.org/en/2015-report

Remember it is published annually

 

 


CHAPTER FOUR

HISTORY: STANDING ON THE SHOULDERS OF GIANTS

 

 

Page 97

Cicero

If this quote arouses your interest, look at the Wikipedia entry for a good introductory tour to Cicero and his work.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cicero

 

Page 98 Finding out about sociology round the world:

 

Look at the web site for the International Sociological Association

The Newsletter of the British Sociological Association has a regular feature on ‘International News: Around The World”.
We need to distinguish between the sociology of a country and the sociology from a country. Thus there are plenty of books now that give us a sociology of China (like

Jean Louis Rocca A Sociology of Modern China (2015) but not so many on ‘ sociology in China’.

 

Look out for studies of specific countries. On sociology round the world, see for example:

 

China

http://understandingsociety.blogspot.co.uk/2010/09/sociology-in-china.html

A History of Chinese Sociology, by Zheng Hang-sheng and Li Ying-sheng (China Renmin University Press) includes a fairly detailed appendix listing “Major Events in Chinese Sociology.” Here are a few significant events from the early twentieth century:

  • 1921 Xiamen University established the department of history and sociology — first department of sociology in universities run by the Chinese
  • 1922 Yu Tian-xiu set up “Association of Chinese Sociology” and started Journal of Sociology
  • 1923 Shanghai started the department of sociology; stipulated that the teaching took the theoretical basis of Marxism and Leninism, i.e. historical materialism as its guide.
  • 1924 The Fund Board of Chinese Education and Culture was established in Beijing and the Department of Social Survey was led by Tao Meng-he and Li Jing-han.  Published a large number of findings reports, including Rural Families in the Suburbs of Beiping.
  • 1926 Li Da published Modern Sociology.
  • 1928 Chen Han-sheng conducted three large-scale surveys of rural areas in Hebei, Jiangsu and Guangdong Provinces through the early 1930s.
  • 1930 The department of sociology in Yanjing University established an experimental base at Qinghe Town, where Xu Shi-lian and Yang Kai-dao directed students to survey the population trend, families, bazars, organizations of village and town in Qinghe Town

 

India

http://www.sociologyguide.com/indian-thinkers/

This looks like an Indian web site

Indian Political Thought

http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3045000563.html

a key book is:

Sharma Indian Political Thought

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=BX3wIjJ9mvMC&redir_esc=y

 

Islamic

https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Islamic_political_thought

You can find the full text of Anthony Black’s History of Islamic Political Thought on line at: http://www.google.co.uk/search?q=history+of+muslim+political+thought&hl=en-GB&biw=&bih=&gbv=2&oq=History+of+Muslim+thought&gs_l=heirloom-serp.1.1.0j0i22i30.4741.19439.0.23025.43.34.6.3.3.1.152.1764.30j3.33.0….0…1ac.1.34.heirloom-serp..3.40.1640.KhcrTPO6wQw

 

Portugal

Filipe Carreira da Silvae Sociology in Portugal: A Short History ( 2015)

 

Page 98 Early histories of sociology in the world

A quick guide to the Axial Age can be found at:

http://www.humanjourney.us/axialintro.html

On The Axial Age: see

Robert N Bellah and Hans Joas The Axial Age and Its Consequences 2012

For a discussion of ‘Big History’ and the rise of the Axial Age

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RkzO0wNOOc8
Page 100

The Enlightenment

For an opening You Tube lecture, see Julian Champion

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QcrYefMB3qM

 

Zygmunt Baumann Lectures on the Enlightenment and links to his own theories

See

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FaRIDSh_-lk

 

For a good compendium of discussion and original articles on the Enlightenment see,

Paul Hyland with Olga Gomez and Francesca Greensides

The Enlightenment: A Sourcebook and reader. Routledge . 2003

See also Roy Porter’s classic study of The Enlightenment Penguin (new ed 2001).

And Jonathan Israel’s A Revolution of the Mind (2010) Princeton

And see also Jonahan Israel speaking on you tube at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBcP7TAVkNQ

 

Page 102 on

Here is the beginnings of a TIME LINE OF SOCIOLOGY. AS much more detailed listing can be found in George Ritzer The Encyclopedia of Sociology Blackwell 2008   Volume 1

551-479 BCE   Confucius: Analects of Confucius
469 -399 BCE Socrates and western philosophy
384 -322 BCE Aristotle
360 BCE Plato

973-1048 Al-Biruni, Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad,
1332-1406 Ibn-Khaldun, Mugaddimah

1516 Thomas More Utopia…….
Hobbes, Descartes,

1689-1755 Montesquieu: Persian Letters and The Spirit of the Laws: key books of the Enlightenment which addresses crucial sociological issues of ethnocentrism, government and the social laws which regulate society.

1723-90 Adam Smith (1776) An Inquiry into the nature and causes of the Wealth of nations
1762 The Social Contract etc……….

Comte defines Sociology as a discipline- the term invented.

1870-71 the Paris Commune

19—- The Tradition of the ‘Chicago School’ associated with Robert Park and the examination of urban life….

1905 American Sociological Society formed (becoming American Sociological Association in 1959)

1907 Manufacture of the first Fiord motorcar

1951 British Sociological Association founded
1951 Indian Sociological Association founded
1992 European Sociological Association founded (and conference in Vienna)

 

 

Page 105

On the hidden/subterranean histories of sociology, see:

Sociological Amnesia edited by Alex Law and Eric Royal Lubeck

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Sociological-Amnesia-Cross-currents-Disciplinary-Contemporary/dp/1472442342

see also: Corpse to Corpse. BSA Network. Issue 121. Autumn 2015.

 

There is much to find online about Du Bois at:

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/w-e-b-du-bois
See the page of the DuBois Centre at

http://hutchinscenter.fas.harvard.edu/dubois/about-w-e-b-du-bois

 

On the hidden history iof Du Bois,. See

The Scholar denied ( 2015) by Aldon Morris who speaks about his book at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SwXD1BTKZ-8

 

Page 107 The Chicago School of Sociology

See:

http://sociology.uchicago.edu/department/history.shtml

http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199756384/obo-9780199756384-0007.xml

 

Page 110 A note on Key Texts

 

The list is my own personal listing, which was very hard to draw up. I decided they should all be dead and this excluded all living sociologists. It became clear too that most of them were men and that I should not fudge this issue by adding in token women. I hence created a separate kind of table for ‘women sociologists’.

 

The International Sociological Association has listed 10 books of the 20th century and it is this:

 

%
1 Weber, Max Economy and Society 20.9
2 Mills, Charles Wright The Sociological Imagination 13.0
3 Merton, Robert K. Social Theory and Social Structure 11.4
4 Weber, Max The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism 10.3
5 Berger, P.L. and Luckmann, T. The Social Construction of Reality 9,9
6 Bourdieu, Pierre Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste 9.5
7 Elias, Norbert The Civilizing Process 6.6
8 Habermas, Jürgen The Theory of Communicative Action 6.4
9 Parsons, Talcott The Structure of Social Action 6.2
10 Goffman, Erving The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life 5.5

.

See: http://www.isa-sociology.org/books/books10.htm

 

For a recent account of ‘Sociology Best Sellers’ – with a strong US bias- see:

https://contexts.org/articles/a-fresh-look-at-sociology-bestsellers/

For the continuing debate see:

https://thesocietypages.org/monte/2014/01/01/20-great-books-in-sociology-that-deserve-more-readers/

 

102 Most cited journal articles between 2008-12.
I would not take this too seriously as an indicator of much except a small group of people. But they like these kinds of lists:
http://nealcaren.web.unc.edu/the-102-most-cited-works-in-sociology-2008-2012/

 

 

 

Page 111 1968

On 1968, see:

https://kenplummer.com/publications/selected-writings-2/subterranean-traditions-rising-the-year-that-enid-blyton-died/

 

Page 114

On multiculturalism, see;

See Seyla Banhabib The Claims of Culture: Equality and Diversity in the Global Culture 2002 Princeton especially the introduction

Chandra Talpade Mohanty Feminism Without Borders;Decolonizing Theory, Practicing Solidarity 2003 Duke will provide a major account of how these problems and issues have developed within multiculturalism and feminism.

 

On the contemporary critique of multiculturalism by sociologists see:

The Post-Modern Reader (AD Reader) [Paperback]

Charles Jencks (Editor) Wiley 2010 2nd ed

The Post-colonial Studies Reader by Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin Routledge 2005

Page 114 Feminism

Essential Feminist Reader (Modern Library Classics) [Paperback]

Estelle B. Freedman 2007 Modern Library Inc

Feminist Theory: A Reader [Paperback]

Wendy Kolmar (Author), Frances Bartkowski (Author) 2nd ed 2004 McGraw Hill
P89-90: Feminism unbound
See Lengermann & Niebrugge-Brantley’s excellent The Women Founders (1998) on all this).This has largely happened over the past forty years and has enriched…….

 

Jane Addams

http://hullhouse.uic.edu/hull/urbanexp/

http://www.hullhousemuseum.org/

http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1931/press.html

 

Harriet Martineau

http://www.transcendentalists.com/harriet_martineau.htm :

valuable source for original writings

 

Page 116 Cultural Studies

 

 

Page 116-7

 

An excellent short introduction to postcolonial studies is :

Robert C. Young Postcolonialism: A very short introduction 2003 Oxford

Page 117   Queer

 

 

Page 118 Future histories and state of the art

History of British Sociology

See the You Tube discussion

John Urry and Chris Rojek   British Sociology since 1945

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JAdl_XdFja8

Recorded at the British Sociological Association annual conference 2011, sponsored by SAGE.

 

Finally look at some of the web sites of some key sociological associations like:

These sites have sections that can assist students.

 

 

On Rape Statistics, see

Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault by Candace Kruttschnitt, William D. Kalsbeek, and Carol C. House, Editors

http://www.nap.edu/catalog/18605/estimating-the-incidence-of-rape-and-sexual-assault

 

 

Page 170 : Narrative

 

Narratives and stories are among the most powerful instruments for
ordering human experience. Narrative can be expressed in oral or
written language, still or moving pictures, or a mixture of these media.
It is present in myths, legends, fables, tales, short stories, epics,
history, tragedy, drama, comedy, pantomime, paintings, stained glass
windows, movies, local news, and conversation. In its almost infinite
variety of forms, it is present at all times, in all places, and in all
societies. Indeed, narrative starts with the very history of mankind….”
(Barthes, 1975).

 

We tell ourselves stories in order to live

Joan Didion, title of her collected stories.

 

Stories animate human life: that is their work.

Arthur W.Frank   Letting Stories Breathe

 

Narrative makes the earth habitable for human beings” Frank, again: p46

 

We have each of us, a life story, an inner narrative – whose continuity, whose sense is our lives…. A man needs such a narrative, a continuous inner narrative to maintain his identity…

Oliver Sachs opening to The man who mistook his wife for a hat

 

.. There is no best way to tell a story about society. Many genres, many methods, many formats – they can all do the trick. Instead of ideal ways to do it, the world gives us possibilities among which we choose. Every way of telling the story of a society does some of the job superbly but other parts not so well……

Howard S Becker     Telling About Society 2007 : 285

 

“All sorrows can be born if you put them in a story or tell a story about them….” Hannah Arendt: The Human Condition

 

This is what fools people: a man is always a teller of tales, he lives surrounded by his stories and the stories of others, he sees everything that happens to him through them; and he tries to live his life as if he were (recounting it) telling a story.

Jean Paul Sartre Nausea

 

Our life is essentially a set of stories we tell ourselves about our past, present and future… we ‘story’ our lives…in fact, restorying continually goes on within us

G.M. Kenyon and L.W. Randall Restorying Our Lives

 

Our society has become a recited society, in three senses: it is defined by stories (Recits, the fables constituted by our advertising and informational media) by citations of stories, and by the interminable recitation of stories.

Michel de Certeau The Practice of Everyday Life, 1984 p186

 

The significance of narrative in sociology cannot be understimated. We are the narrating animal, telling stories in order to live. As Roland Barthes famously remarked:

 

“Narratives and stories are among the most powerful instruments for ordering human experience. Narrative can be expressed in oral or written language, still or moving pictures, or a mixture of these media. It is present in myths, legends, fables, tales, short stories, epics, history, tragedy, drama, comedy, pantomime, paintings, stained glass windows, movies, local news, and conversation. In its almost infinite variety of forms, it is present at all times, in all places, and in all societies. Indeed, narrative starts with the very history of mankind “ ( Barthes, 1975).

 

Here are some of the kinds of descriptions or narratives that sociologists encounter and indeed make themselves:

 

  1. Common sense narratives- this involves ‘just telling it as it is’. Don’t worry too much about it. Listen to what people say and report it as well as you can.
  2. Statistical narratives – counting it when you can. Try and get to the complexities by counting and measuring. Then you should be able to make generalisations across a host of cases. Through statistics – giving us broad features of who does what where when and maybe why?
  3. Idiographic narrative – the unique tale. Get close to one account of the world, really try and understand it. Capture the in depth complexity in your writing.
  4. Thematic narratives – looking at substance for core themes. Take a number of cases and try to tease out common threads ands themes into your own account. Here you may want to lookout for Formal and structural narratives – finding underlying pattern
  5. Hermeneutic circle narratives ?????
  6. Dialogic and performative narratives – probing self and communication seriously

 

We can gain these narratives:
Through ethnography – giving us an inner sense of the culture, of what is going on here?
Through biographies – giving us a feel of how lives are lived and experience this?
Through documents – giving us a natural glimpse of what is going on – in court records, films, reports
Through visuals – giving us images through which we can see what is going on

 

In a simple way- and following the highly influential anthropologist Clifford Gerrtz- we might want to distinguish between descriptions which are thin, and others which are thick or deep……

 

And ponder the issue of deep description (Geertz).
http://hypergeertz.jku.at/GeertzTexts/Thick_Description.htm

 

Geertz, Clifford. “Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture”. In The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. (New York: Basic Books, 1973) 3-30.

See: http://hypergeertz.jku.at/GeertzTexts/Thick_Description.htm

 

Page 170

 

The Roshomon Effect

 

This is a term based on the famous Japanese film. Akira Kurosawa’s world renowned film, Rashomon, (1950) set in 12th century feudal Japan, tells the story of a woman raped and her samurai husband murdered by a notorious bandit Tajomaru who is later captured and put on trial. The story is then told – through various cunning devices – from the perspectives of four different characters – the bandit, the woman, the samurai – and a passing by wood cutter. All the stories are mutually contradictory and the film poses a challenge about which of the perspectives is true.

See: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0042876/

 

Page 172-3: Human Social Life as perspectival, as a point of view

 

In many ways this is well known and sociologists have to take it seriously. As the literary critic Kenneth Burke has famously put it: “every way of seeing is also a way of not seeing” (1935:70); that “every insight contains its own special kind of blindness” (1984:41). It is even present in a famous childhood poem (by the American poet John Godfrey Saxe) which tells the tale of six blind (but learned) men from Indostan who describe their physical observations of an elephant. Blindfolded, eah is asked to ffeel the epelphadn and describe what they find; and each describe it differently- as ‘very like a wall’,as ‘ a snake’, as ‘a spear’,as ’ a tree’,as ‘a fan’ and even as a ‘rope’: ‘ each was partly in the right , and all were in the wrong’:

 

So oft in theologic wars,
The disputants, I ween,
Rail on in utter ignorance
Of what each other mean,
And prate about an Elephant
Not one of them has seen!

 

 

 

See: http://www.wordinfo.info/words/index/info/view_unit/1/?letter=B&spage=3

 

In both the Tale of the Elephant and the tale of Rasomon, we see the problem of competing perspectives circling around the truth. And these are fables to remember as we study society, because society is a whirling stream of different perspectives and partial truths, stories told from different angles and different perspectives. The sociologist has to recognise this not only in what is being studied, but also in what he or she subsequently writes – the sociologists tales which we can be sure will be challenged by other perspectives in time, both within sociology and outside of. This is the deeply problematic nature of social reality and its varying perspectives……..

 

Both of these accounts though leave something missing. There is a true elephant and somebody did rape and murder! So while we do need to recognise the one sided nature of perspectives for sure, we also must develop a wider account that gets closert to the truth. Ultimately the more perspectives we can develop, the more accurate our portrait may be. We may not be able to tell the whole story, but some stories come much nearer to it than others……

 

 

Page 174

 

Verstehen is a method advocated by Max Weber to highlight the “understanding” and “interpretation” of meaning and human activities. It tries to understand people on their own terms and from their own point-of-view.

 

Hermeneutics refers generally to the ways in which study the interpretive process ( it was originally concerned with the interpretation of written texts). – how do people go about making sense (translating) and interpreting the world around them…Such underatanding has a cucruclar character – each part of an understanding links to other parts.

 

“””The hermeneutic circle describes the process of understanding a text hermeneutically. It refers to the idea that one’s understanding of the text as a whole is established by reference to the individual parts and one’s understanding of each individual part by reference to the whole. Neither the whole text nor any individual part can be understood without reference to one another, and hence, it is a circle. However, this circular character of interpretation does not make it impossible to interpret a text, rather, it stresses that the meaning of text must be found within its cultural, historical, and literary context.”””WIKI   (Habermas)

More WIKI…Jürgen Habermas considered his major achievement to be the development of the concept and theory of communicative reason or communicative rationality, which distinguishes itself from the rationalist tradition by locating rationality in structures of interpersonal linguistic communication rather than in the structure of either the cosmos or the knowing subject. This social theory advances the goals of human emancipation, while maintaining an inclusive universalist moral framework. This framework rests on the argument called universal pragmatics – that all speech acts have an inherent telos (the Greek word for “end”) — the goal of mutual understanding, and that human beings possess the communicative competence to bring about such understanding. Habermas built the framework out of the speech-act philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, J. L. Austin, and John Searle, the sociological theory of the interactional constitution of mind and self of George Herbert Mead, the theories of moral development of Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg, and the discourse ethics of his Heidelberg colleague Karl-Otto Apel.

He carried forward the traditions of Kant and the Enlightenment and of democratic socialism through his emphasis on the potential for transforming the world and arriving at a more humane, just, and egalitarian society through the realization of the human potential for reason, in part through discourse ethics. While Habermas conceded that the Enlightenment is an “unfinished project,” he argued it should be corrected and complemented, not discarded. In this he distanced himself from the Frankfurt School, criticizing it, as well as much of postmodernist thought, for excessive pessimism, misdirected radicalism and exaggerations.

Within sociology, Habermas’s major contribution was the development of a comprehensive theory of societal evolution and modernization focusing on the difference between communicative rationality and rationalization on the one hand and strategic/instrumental rationality and rationalization on the other. This included a critique from a communicative standpoint of the differentiation-based theory of social systems developed by Niklas Luhmann, a student of Talcott Parsons.

His defence of modernity and civil society has been a source of inspiration to others, and is considered a major philosophical alternative to the varieties of poststructuralism. He has also offered an influential analysis of late capitalism.

Habermas saw the rationalization, humanization, and democratization of society in terms of the institutionalization of the potential for rationality that is inherent in the communicative competence that is unique to the human species. Habermas believed communicative competence has developed through the course of evolution, but in contemporary society it is often suppressed or weakened by the way in which major domains of social life, such as the market, the state, and organizations, have been given over to or taken over by strategic/instrumental rationality, so that the logic of the system supplants that of the lifeworld.

Writing

See also the project: Writing Across Boundaries.

This is a project which gets various social scientists who have published quite a bit to reflect on the nature of their writing. It includes pieces by Howard Becker, Harvey Molotch, Marilyn Strathborn and Liz Stanley, myself and many others: see

http://www.dur.ac.uk/writingacrossboundaries

On this website you will also find resources relating to a variety of themes that engage writers in the social sciences. These include and Drafting and Plotting, the Data-Theory Relationship, Narrative, Rhetoric, and Representation and Hints and Tips on Writing

 

Some challenges to orthodox methodologies include: include Chela Sanoval’s Methodology of the Oppressed ( 2000), Les Back, The Art of Listening (2007), Norman Denzin The Qualitative Manifesto: A Call to Arms (2010). Kate Orton-Johnson et al (2013) ed Digital Sociology: Critical Perspectives ; Deborah Lupton, Digital Sociology,

 

Critical qualitative research

Norman Denzin                   The Qualitative Manifesto: A Call to Arms (2010) Left Coast Press

D.Soyini Madison     Critical Ethnography: Method, Ethics and Performance. (2005) Sage

Gayle Letherby                    Feminist Research in Theory and Practice (2003) OU Press

Dorothy Smith                     The Everyday World as Problematic (1988) Northeastern University Press

————                    Writing the Social (1998) Toronto

Marjorie de Vault     Liberating Methodology: Feminism and Research (1999) Temple

Michael Buroway et al         Global Ethnography: Forces, Connections and Imaginations in a Postmodern World (2000) California

Norman Denzin

and Yvonne Lincoln           The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research 3rd edition Sage (2007) (but other editions are worth looking at- they are different)

Linda T Smith           Decolonizing Methodologies Zed Books 1999

Norman K.Denzin &

Yvonna S.Lincoln&

Linda Tuhiwai Smith           Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies eds (2008) Sage

Judith Butler                          Giving a Stance of Oneself (2005) Fordham University

Kath Browne et al    Queer Methods and Methodologies (2010) Ashgate

 

 

 


CHAPTER SEVEN

SUFFERING INEQUALITIES: P180 – 211

 

 

Page 180-1

 

To start with listen to:

Danny Dorling on Inequalities

http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2012/05/danny-dorling-on-inequality/

 

and a quick listing? Try

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwIEZDMDBo4

 

Page 180

 

Here is the full version of ‘ Man’s inhumanity to man makes countless thousands mourn! ‘ By Robert Burns: Man Was Made To Mourn: A Dirge 1784
http://www.robertburns.org/works/55.shtml

1784

Type: Dirge

When chill November’s surly blast
Made fields and forests bare,
One ev’ning, as I wander’d forth
Along the banks of Ayr,
I spied a man, whose aged step
Seem’d weary, worn with care;
His face furrow’d o’er with years,
And hoary was his hair.”Young stranger, whither wand’rest thou?”
Began the rev’rend sage;
“Does thirst of wealth thy step constrain,
Or youthful pleasure’s rage?
Or haply, prest with cares and woes,
Too soon thou hast began
To wander forth, with me to mourn
The miseries of man.”The sun that overhangs yon moors,
Out-spreading far and wide,
Where hundreds labour to support
A haughty lordling’s pride;-
I’ve seen yon weary winter-sun
Twice forty times return;
And ev’ry time has added proofs,
That man was made to mourn.”O man! while in thy early years,
How prodigal of time!
Mis-spending all thy precious hours-
Thy glorious, youthful prime!
Alternate follies take the sway;
Licentious passions burn;
Which tenfold force gives Nature’s law.
That man was made to mourn.”Look not alone on youthful prime,
Or manhood’s active might;
Man then is useful to his kind,
Supported in his right:
But see him on the edge of life,
With cares and sorrows worn;
Then Age and Want-oh! ill-match’d pair-
Shew man was made to mourn.

“A few seem favourites of fate,
In pleasure’s lap carest;
Yet, think not all the rich and great
Are likewise truly blest:
But oh! what crowds in ev’ry land,
All wretched and forlorn,
Thro’ weary life this lesson learn,
That man was made to mourn.

“Many and sharp the num’rous ills
Inwoven with our frame!
More pointed still we make ourselves,
Regret, remorse, and shame!
And man, whose heav’n-erected face
The smiles of love adorn, –
Man’s inhumanity to man
Makes countless thousands mourn!

“See yonder poor, o’erlabour’d wight,
So abject, mean, and vile,
Who begs a brother of the earth
To give him leave to toil;
And see his lordly fellow-worm
The poor petition spurn,
Unmindful, tho’ a weeping wife
And helpless offspring mourn.

“If I’m design’d yon lordling’s slave,
By Nature’s law design’d,
Why was an independent wish
E’er planted in my mind?
If not, why am I subject to
His cruelty, or scorn?
Or why has man the will and pow’r
To make his fellow mourn?

“Yet, let not this too much, my son,
Disturb thy youthful breast:
This partial view of human-kind
Is surely not the last!
The poor, oppressed, honest man
Had never, sure, been born,
Had there not been some recompense
To comfort those that mourn!

“O Death! the poor man’s dearest friend,
The kindest and the best!
Welcome the hour my aged limbs
Are laid with thee at rest!
The great, the wealthy fear thy blow
From pomp and pleasure torn;
But, oh! a blest relief for those
That weary-laden mourn!”

 

Page 181

see Goran Therborn talking about inequalities at

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zvp2omouPNs

 

Page 182

As the Irish poet Louis McNeice beautifully put it: the world is ‘ crazier and more of it than we think, the drunkenness of things various’. Human worlds are lush with multiplicities and possibilities. See: http://www.thepoetryexchange.co.uk/uncategorized/snow-by-louis-macneice-2/

 

 

Page 183- 7

On the durability of inequalities, see Charles Tilly: Durable Inequality (1999) Berkeley: University of California Press. It’s blurb states:

“Charles Tilly, in this eloquent manifesto, presents a powerful new approach to the study of persistent social inequality. How, he asks, do long-lasting, systematic inequalities in life chances arise, and how do they come to distinguish members of different socially defined categories of persons? Exploring representative paired and unequal categories, such as male/female, black/white, and citizen/noncitizen, Tilly argues that the basic causes of these and similar inequalities greatly resemble one another. In contrast to contemporary analyses that explain inequality case by case, this account is one of process. Categorical distinctions arise, Tilly says, because they offer a solution to pressing organizational problems. Whatever the “organization” is–as small as a household or as large as a government–the resulting relationship of inequality persists because parties on both sides of the categorical divide come to depend on that solution, despite its drawbacks. Tilly illustrates the social mechanisms that create and maintain paired and unequal categories with a rich variety of cases, mapping out fertile territories for future relational study of durable inequality”
For a critical note on this book, see Mike Savage:

http://www.socresonline.org.uk/3/2/savage.html

 

 

 

 

The Facts of World Inequalities
Danny Dorling on Inequalities

http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2012/05/danny-dorling-on-inequality/

and a quick listing? Try

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwIEZDMDBo4

 

Page 184-5

Here is a clickable listing of the Data list given on page 183-6
World Top Incomes Database http://topincomes.parisschoolofeconomics.eu/

Rich List (Forbes, Sunday Times) http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/public/richlist/

http://www.forbes.com/billionaires/list/

Oxfam Report on Global Poverty:

https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/file_attachments/bp210-economy-one-percent-tax-havens-180116-en_0.pdf

 

For the original Credit Suisse Study see:

Credit Suisse (2015) ‘Global Wealth Databook 2015’. Total net wealth at constant exchange rate (USD billion).

http://publications.credit-suisse.com/tasks/render/file/index.cfm?fileid=C26E3824-E868-56E0-

CCA04D4BB9B9ADD5

An Economy for the 1% 18th January 2016

 

 

Global Slavery Index http://www.globalslaveryindex.org/

Human Development Index (HDI) http://hdr.undp.org/en
Inequality Adjusted Human Development Index
Gender Inequality Index (GID) http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/table-4-gender-inequality-index

see also: http://www.unwomen.org/en
Displaced Migrants: http://www.internal-displacement.org/

Human Security Index: http://www.humansecurityindex.org/

See also:

http://www.globalissues.org/article/26/poverty-facts-and-stats

 

Finally, The United Nations monitors the responses of states across the world, while Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch produce regular nation based comparisons and reports

 

Map of United Nations Indicators on Rights: http://indicators.ohchr.org/

Human Rights Watch http://www.hrw.org/

Amnesty International http://www.amnesty.org.uk/

Annual State Sponsored Homophobia Report on PDF

http://ilga.org/

and http://ilga.org/what-we-do/state-sponsored-homophobia-report/
The Vision of Humanity web site and follow up the leads it provides. See: http://www.visionofhumanity.org

(You will find both the Global Peace Index and The Terrorism Index)

Global Peace Index

http://www.visionofhumanity.org/#/page/indexes/global-peace-index

The Terrorism Index

Global Cost of Violence Report http://www.copenhagenconsensus.com/sites/default/files/conflict_assessment_-_hoeffler_and_fearon_0.pdf
Some more Data

Global wealth is increasingly concentrated in the hands of a small wealthy elite.

Oxfam’s frequently cited fact in 2014: ‘85 billionaires have the same wealth as the bottom half of the world’s population.’

In 2014, the richest 1% of people in the world owned 48% of global wealth, leaving just 52% to be shared between the other 99% of adults on the planet.1 Almost all of that 52% is owned by those included in the richest 20%, leaving just 5.5% for the remaining 80% of people in the world. If this trend continues of an increasing wealth share to the richest, the top 1% will have more wealth than the remaining 99% of people in just two years, as shown on Figure 2, with the wealth share of the top 1% exceeding 50% by 2016.

The Rich List

And in the UK, the Sunday Times Rich list published in April 2015 showed that the wealth of Britain’s richest people has more than doubled in the last ten years. The wealthiest 1,000 individuals and families now have a combined fortune of £547.126 BILLION up from £249.615 billion recorded in 2005.

Here is a list of Britain’s wealthiest 25 people, according to The Sunday Times Rich List.

1 Len Blavatnik £13.17 billion 
2 Sri and Gopi Hinduja £13 billion 
3 Galen and George Weston and family £11 billion 
4 Alisher Usmanov £9.8 billion 
5 David and Simon Reuben £9.7 billion 
6 Ernesto and Kirsty Bertarelli £9.45 billion 
7 Lakshmi Mittal and family £9.2 billion 
8 Kirsten and Jorn Rausing £8.7 billion 
9 The Duke of Westminster £8.56 billion 
10 Roman Abramovich £7.29 billion 
11 John Fredriksen and family £7.24 billion 
12 Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken and Michel de Carvalho £7.145 billion 
13 Sir David and Sir Frederick Barclay £6.5 billion 
14 Hans Rausing and family £6.4 billion 
15 Mohamed Bin Issa Al Jaber and family £5.935 billion 
16 Carrie and Francois Perrodo and family £5.8 billion 
17 Nathan Kirsh £5.06 billion 
18 Earl Cadogan and family £4.8 billion 
19 Nicky Oppenheimer and family £4.55 billion 
20 Sir Richard Branson and family £4.1 billion 
21 Bruno Schroder and family £3.76 billion 
22= Mike Ashley £3.5 billion 
22= Sir James Dyson and family £3.5 billion 
22= Sir Philip and Lady Green £3.5 billion 
25 Sir Henry Keswick and family £3.275 billion

What is shocking about all this is that the world has been gripped by a period of recession and austerity. So how is it possible that the rich – who caused the international banking crisis in the first place – have done so well out of it?

 

More Reading

 

Oxfam International (2014) Even It Up: Time to End Extreme Inequality

(2015) Wealth: Having it all and wanting more https://www.oxfam.org/en/research/wealth-having-it-all-and-wanting-more

 

Danny Dorling (2014) Inequality and the 1%
 (Verso, 2014)
A University of Oxford social geographer has written widely on the horrors of austerity – on poverty, inequality and the housing crisis. He explains why we cannot afford the rich.

 

Stewart Lansley and Joanna Mack (2015) Breadline Britain: The Rise of Mass Poverty One World. Poverty in Britain is now at crisis levels and the current government stigmatizes, excludes and blames the poor whilst protecting the rich.

 

Annette Hastings et al (2015) The Costs of the Cuts: The Impact on Local Givernments and Poorer Communities London: Rowntree see: http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/Summary-Final.pdf

 

Thomas Piketty (2014) Capital in the Twenty-First Century
 (Harvard University Press, 2014)
 Widely discussed, and already a classic, a French economist explores not just how unequal we have become but also shows how even more unequal we are rapidly becoming.

 

Goran Therborn (2013) The Killing Fields of Inequality. Cambridge: Polity

 

James Meek (2015 rev ed) Treasure Island: Why Britain Now Belongs to Some one Else. Verso Critical examination of the ways in which Britain’s public services have been sold off – so the rich benefit and the poor pay.

 

Kerry-Anne Mendoza (2015) Austerity: The Demolition of the Welfare State and the Rise of the Zombie Economy. Oxford: New Internationalist

 

Andrew Sayer (2015) Why we can’t afford the rich/ Bristol: Policy Press

A startling book by a well-known and respected sociologist. He shows how the new economy – and austerity– works to make the rich richer and the poor poorer; how this is now done on a massive scale as the rich live lives cut off from the 99% of the world. Full of quite shocking detail that leads one to ask : just how are they getting away with making our world such a terrible place?

 

Joseph Stiglitz (2012) The Price of Inequality: How Today’s Divided Society Endangers Our Future
 (W.W. Norton)
A Nobel Prize-winning economist paints a vivid picture.

 

Polly Toynbee & David Walker (2015) Cameron’s Coup: How The Tories took Britain to the Brink. Guardian Books. A journalist and obviously partisan book that shows just how much havoc the Coalition has hurled at Britain over the past five years.

 

John Urry (2014) Offshoring . Cambridge: Polity. One of the world’s leading sociologists details the problem of the rich ‘ffshoring’…..

 

Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett (2009) The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger
 (Bloomsbury Press, 2009)
Became an instant classic as it showed that by every measure that matters, from social trust to how long we live, relatively equal nations outperform nations where income concentrates at the top.
Page 186 On Caste

There are a number of films about the caste system on the You Tube: see

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FKZxAAAiJdg&index=3&list=PLDnc1tQT3zoGZgii9LxHrBgzxtVVuLe3E

 

See also: Arudhati Roy On Capitalism and Caste

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3tkQyqLnFbk

 

Page 187   On Slavery

See the documentary: Slavery- A 21st Century Evil (2011) at

http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/slavery-21st-century-evil/

Wikipedia has a list of films featuring slavery: see

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_films_featuring_slavery

 

Page 188 social class

For a review of the Mike Savage et al book

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/nov/13/social-class-21st-century-mike-savage-review

To ask what is your social class, see:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-34766169

 

A recent study to help you investigate the vast writings on social class, look at:

Will Atkinson Class (2015) Polity

An Amazon Blurb says:
Class is not only amongst the oldest and most controversial of all concepts in social science, but a topic which has fascinated, amused, incensed and galvanized the general public, too. But what exactly is a class ? How do sociologists study and measure it, and how does it correspond to everyday understandings of social difference? Is it now dead or dying in today s globalized and media–saturated world, or is it entering a new phase of significance on the world stage?

 

This book seeks to explore these questions in an accessible and lively manner, taking readers through the key theoretical traditions in class research, the major controversies that have shaken the field and the continuing effects of class difference, class struggle and class inequality across a range of domains.

 

The book will appeal to students and scholars in sociology, social policy, geography, education, cultural studies and health sciences.

 

 

Wendy Bottero Stratification: Social Division and Inequality 2005 Routledge

Tony Bennett, Mike Savage, Elizabeth Silva, Alan Warde, Modesto Gayo-Cal, David Wright: Culture, Class, Distinction. 2009   Routledge
Page 188-9 The Globally Excluded

See Children Living in the Guatemala City Dump; Children of the 4th World – Documentary

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O6SPy9qV1M4

 

The Precariat

See Guy Standing: his book A Precariat Charter and he discusses all this on:
“A Precariat Charter: From Denizens to Citizens”, a Seminar with Guy Standing
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGLSGeqF1Po

The notion of The Dispossessed is seen in the science fiction of Ursula Le Gn her novel of that name: hear:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ebb6V-4c0Xw
In human societies, differences are used as moral markers to establish how some are better than others. Moral worth is often attached to this labeling as boundaries are established of the normal and

For a discussion of class and moral boundaries, see especially the work of Michele Lamont: Money, Morals and Manners. 1994. Chicago ; and The Dignity of Working Men 2002 Harvard UP.

 

Page 189

Kimberley Crenshaw is usually seen as the first writers to talk about intersectionality, see her at:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KNKbGFoYC1Q
On intersectional theory: see :

Patricia Hill Collins   Black Feminist Thought 1990 , 2008 3rd ed Routledge
Yvette Taylor ed   Classed Intersections 2010, Ashgate

 

Page 191

On the BBC Survey and Mike Savage etc see

A New Model of Social Class? Findings from the BBC’s Great British Class Survey Experiment Sociology April 2013 vol. 47 no. 2 219-250
http://soc.sagepub.com/content/47/2/219.short

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/arts/books/non-fiction/article4605595.ece

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/0/21970879

 

Page 193

There is much on Bourdieu on the web site. See

HyperBourdieu© WorldCatalogue

http://hyperbourdieu.jku.at/

An online bibliography of comments and elaborations of Bourdieu’s work

http://web.archive.org/web/20080302205941/http://www.massey.ac.nz/~nzsrda/bourdieu/byauthgr.htm

Bourdieu Foundation

http://www.fondation-bourdieu.org/

 

A useful starting point here is the Wikipedia entry.

 

On gender, the literature is equally vast: sample-

  1. Connell Masculinities (1995; 2nd ed 2005) Polity

Amy S Wharton       The Sociology of Gender 2005   Blackwell

Angela Mcrobbie     The aftermath of feminism 2008 Sage

 

An important statement from a long standing central figure is:

Catherine A. MacKinnon    Are Women Human? 2006 Harvard

A contemporary history of feminism is:

Lynne Segal              Why Feminism? 1999 Polity

A sample of twenty first century feminist texts include:

Natasha Walter                    Living Dolls : The Return of sexism 2010 Virago

Kate Banyard                        The Equality Illusion 2010 Faber and Faber

Catherine Redfern & Kristin Aune Reclaiming the Word 2010 Zed
Page 194

Some recent work in this field published as this edition of the book goes to press can be found in the debates in Sociology One Line: The Matter of Race (August 2015: 20, 3, 13): see

http://www.socresonline.org.uk/20/3/13.html

A useful article that can be downloaded on racialization is from Didier Fassin, and he extends the work of Du Bois: see his article at

https://www.sss.ias.edu/files/pdfs/Fassin/Racialization.pdf

 

see also:
Black Lives Matter?

http://blacklivesmatter.com/
Page 195

A wide ranging tour of the current field of disability studies can be found in:

Lennard J.Davis the Disability Studies Reader 2010 3rd edition. Routledge

 

Page 196

The classic writing here is

Eve Kasofsky Sedgwick Epistemology of the Closet 1990 Harvester/ Penguin

Judith Butler   Gender Trouble 1990 Routledge

See also:

Nicki Sullivan A Critical Introduction to Queer Theory 2003 Edinburgh University

 

 

Page 197 The Generational and Age Order

The classic studies are by Mannheim and Eisenstadt:

Karl Mannheim ‘’The problem of generations’ in Collected works of Karl Mannheim Vol 5 p276-320.London: Routledge

S.N. Eisenstadt   From Generation to Generation 1956 Free Press

More recently see:

June Edmunds and Bryan S.Turner Generations, culture and society. 2002. Open University Press

 

For an application of generational theory, see my own work:

Ken Plummer Generational Sexualities, Subterranean Traditions and the Hauntings of the Sexual World: Some Preliminary Remarks   2010 Symbolic Interaction. Vol 33.No 2 p162-p190

 

Page 200 Voices of the Poor: Can anyone hear us was published by the UN in 2000.

It is the the first in a three-part series, about the common patterns that emerged from the poor people’s experiences in many different places. Chapter 1 sets out the conceptual framework and methodology. Chapter 2 discusses poverty from the perspective of the poor. Chapter 3 examines poor people’s experience with the state, and includes case studies of access to health care and education. Chapter 4 addresses the nature and quality of poor people’s interactions with civil society. Chapter 5 considers the household as a key social institution, and discusses gender relations within households and how these relations affect and are affected by larger institutions of society. Chapter 6 focuses on social fragmentation, and includes a discussion of social cohesion and social exclusion. Chapter 7 concludes the analysis and proposes some policy recommendations. The analysis leads to these conclusions: 1) poverty is multidimensional; 2) the state has been largely ineffective in reaching the poor; 3) the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the lives of the poor is limited, forcing the poor to depend primarily on their own informal networks; 4) households are crumbling under the stresses of poverty; and 5) the social fabric – poor people’s only “insurance” – is unraveling.

It can be downloaded in full: see: Deepa Narayan: Voices of the Poor: Can anyone hear us

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTPOVERTY/0,,contentMDK:20622514~menuPK:336998~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:336992,00.html

Volume 2 is subtitled: Crying Out for Change (2004).

 

Page 202

On divisive social processes in general, I have been influenced by – and would strongly recommend reading:

Iris Marion Young Justice and the Politics of Difference 1990 Princeton Chapter 2

 

Page 204

On marginalisation, see Iris Marion Young Justice and the Politics of Difference 1990 Princeton Chapter 2 :p53-6

On exclusion, see David Byrne Social Exclusion 2005 2nd edition Open University

On stereotyping, see Michael Pickering   Stereotyping: The Politics of Representation 2001 Palgrave

 

Page 204

The Process of Exploitation

See: Iris Marion Young Justice and the Politics of Difference 1990 Princeton Chapter 2 p48-53

 

Page 205

Violence as the division of last resort

There is an excellent text on this, strongly recommended:

Peter Iadicola & Anson Shupe: Violence, Inequality and Human Freedom. 2003 2nd edition. Rowman and Littlefield.

 

The Armed Conflict Survey (ACS) is a new annual publication that provides yearly data on fatalities, refugees and internally displaced people for all major armed conflicts, alongside in-depth analysis of their political, military and humanitarian dimensions. The first edition of the book covers the key developments and context of more than 40 conflicts, including those in Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Myanmar, Syria and Yemen.

The ACS features essays by some of the world’s leading authorities on armed conflict, who write on subjects such as:

  • the development of jihadism after 9/11;
  • hybrid warfare;
  • refugees and internally displaced people;
  • criminality and conflict;
  • the evolution of peacekeeping operations

see:

https://www.iiss.org/en/publications/acs/by%20year/armed-conflict-survey-2015-46e5

 

The IISS was founded in the UK in 1958 with a focus on nuclear deterrence and arms control. Today, it is also renowned for its annual Military Balance assessment of countries’ armed forces and for its high-powered security summits, including the Shangri-La Dialogue.

 

 

 

Page 207

On Martha Nussbaum’s ideas see interview with her on the You Tube at:

Conversations with history: September 14th 2006 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qy3YTzYjut4

 

See also; The Human Development and Capability Association

http://www.capabilityapproach.com/index.php

 

and its journal
Journal of Human Development and Capabilities A Multi-Disciplinary Journal for People-Centered Development


Here is a summary of Martha Nussbaum’s Central Human Functional Capabilities.

 

  1. Being able to live to the end of a human life of normal length; not dying prematurely or before one’s life is so reduced as to be not worth living
  2. Bodily Health and Integrity. Being able to have good health, including reproductive health; being adequately nourished; being able to have adequate shelter
  3. Bodily Integrity. Being able to move freely from place to place; being able to be secure against violent assault, including sexual assault, marital rape, and domestic violence; having opportunities for sexual satisfaction and for choice in matters of reproduction.
  4. Senses, imagination, thought. Being able to use the senses; being able to imagine, to think, and to reason – and to do these things in a “truly human” way, a way informed and cultivated by an adequate education, including, but by no means limited to, literacy and basic mathematical and scientific training; being able to use imagination and thought in connection with experiencing and producing expressive works and events of one’s own choice (religious, literary, musical etc.); being able to use one’s mind in ways protected by guarantees of freedom of expression wit respect to both political and artistic speech and freedom of religious exercise; being able to have pleasurable experiences and to avoid nonbeneficial pain
  5. Being able to have attachments to things and persons outside ourselves; being able to love those who love and care for us; being able to grieve at their absence; in general being able to love, to grieve, to experience longing, gratitude, and justified anger; not having one’s emotional developing blighted by fear or anxiety. (Supporting this capability means supporting forms of human association that can be shown to be crucial in their development.
  6. Practical reason. Being able to form a conception of the good and to engage in critical reflection about the planning of one’s own life. (This entails protection for the liberty of conscience.)
  7. (a) Being able to live for and in relation to others, to recognize and show concern for other human beings, to engage in various forms of social interaction; being able to imagine the situation of another and to have compassion for the situation; having the capability for both justice and friendship. (Protecting this capability means, once again, protecting institutions that constitute such forms of affiliation, and also protecting institutions that constitute such forms of affiliation, and also protecting the freedoms of assembly and political speech.) (b) Having the social bases of self-respect and nonhumiliation; being able to be treated as a dignified being whose worth is equal to that of others. (This entails provisions of nondiscrimination.)
  8. Other species. Being able to live with concern for and in relation to animals, plants, and the world of nature
  9. Being able to laugh, to play, to enjoy recreational activities.
  10. Control over one’s environment. (a) Political: being able to participate effectively in political choices that govern one’s life; having the rights of political participation, free speech, and freedom of association (b) Material: being able to hold property (both land and movable goods); having the right to seek employment on an equal basis with others; having the freedom from unwarranted search and seizure. In work, being able to work as a human being, exercising practical reason and entering into meaningful relationships of mutual recognition with other workers.

From Martha Nussbaum Sex and Social Justice. 1999: 41-2; but it can be found everywhere in her work (eg Frontiers of Justice); and most recently in Creating Capabilities (2011) and Development and Change, Forum 2006 Vol 37, No 6 November 2006 p1325-7, where she also comments on problems with the list – page 1315.

 

The Oxfam Recommendations for Change:

See on line PDF: January 2016 Oxfam – An Economy for the 1%

 

  1. Pay workers a living wage and close the gap with executive rewards: by increasing minimum wages towards living wages; with transparency on pay ratios; and protecting workers’ rights to unionize and strike.
  2. Promote women’s economic equality and women’s rights: by providing compensation for unpaid care; ending the gender pay gap; promoting equal inheritance and land rights for women; and improving data collection to assess how women and girls are affected by economic policy.
  3. Keep the influence of powerful elites in check: by building mandatory public lobby registries and stronger rules on conflict of interest; ensuring that good-quality information on administrative and budget processes is made public and is free and easily accessible; reforming the regulatory environment, particularly around transparency in government; separating business from campaign financing; and introducing measures to close revolving doors between big business and government.
  4. Change the global system for R&D and the pricing of medicines so that everyone has access to appropriate and affordable medicines: by negotiating a new global R&D treaty; increasing investment in medicines, including in affordable generics; and excluding intellectual property rules from trade agreements. Financing R&D must be delinked from the pricing of medicines in order to break companies’ monopolies, ensuring proper financing of R&D for needed therapy and affordability of resulting products.
  5. Share the tax burden fairly to level the playing field: by shifting the tax burden away from labour and consumption and towards wealth, capital and income from these assets; increasing transparency on tax incentives; and introducing national wealth taxes.
  6. Use progressive public spending to tackle inequality: by prioritizing policies, practice and spending that increase financing for free public health and education to fight poverty and inequality at a national level. Refrain from implementing unproven and unworkable market reforms to public health and education systems, and expand public sector rather than private sector delivery of essential services.

 

 

 


CHAPTER EIGHT

VISIONS: CREATING SOCIOLOGICAL HOPE

P212 – 236

 

 

 

Page 212

The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it.

Karl Marx, Theses on Feuerbach, 1845,Thesis 11 and engraved upon his tomb

See all the Theses here:

https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/theses/theses.htm

 

Page 213- 4

Ernest Bloch’s three volumes on The Principle of Hope (written at the end of the holocaust) shows how throughout history all societies have needed a sense of hope.

You can find an introduction to it at:

https://www.marxists.org/archive/bloch/hope/introduction.htm

 

page 213: Think on: Sociology and utopia

For discussions on sociological utopias, see:

Eric Ohlin Wright (1947-)

http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~wright/RealUtopias.htm

http://understandingsociety.blogspot.co.uk/2010/06/real-utopias.html

 

and see him ‘live’ on the You Tube:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RzqOc-gkI-o

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X-KcHtYCtTs

 

See a discussion on the idea of Sociological Utopias and the Centre for the Utopian Studies by Ruth Levitas

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bYt_L6e9Zdg

 

Look also at the Ralahine Centre for Utopian Studies and their work

http://ulsites.ul.ie/ralahinecentre/

 

There is also a journal called Utopian Studies : see

http://www.psupress.org/journals/jnls_utopian_studies.html

 

See also:

The debate about utopias from a sociological perspective[1]

Richard Kilminster Human Figurations

Volume 3Issue 2, June 2014

http://www.norberteliasfoundation.nl/docs/pdf/Utopias.pdf

 

Page 216

For other answers to the question of What sociologists do? see

http://www.topuniversities.com/student-info/careers-advice/what-can-you-do-sociology-degree

http://sociology.ucdavis.edu/undergraduate-program/career-options

 

The British Sociological Association’s Response:
http://www.britsoc.co.uk/what-is-sociology/what-do-sociologists-do.aspx

 

Page 219

An interesting article to introduce to to the idea of Communication ethics and dialogue in sociology is:

http://www.communicationcache.com/uploads/1/0/8/8/10887248/a_conversation_about_communication_ethics_with_ronald_c._arnett.pdf

Take a look at the book:

Communication, ethics, literacy by Ronald C Arnett and others. Sage 2009

 

On Bakhtin

 

The key writer and philosopher on dialogue is M. Bakhtin. See his

Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays (1982: University of Texas Press) by M.M. Bakhtin, Michael Holquist, and Caryl Emerson

Rabelais and His World by M.M. Bakhtin and Helene Iswolsky ( 1984) Indiana University Press

For an introduction to his work see:

http://www.isfp.co.uk/russian_thinkers/mikhail_bakhtin.html

http://www.iep.utm.edu/bakhtin/

 

Page 219

Deborah Tannen is prolific. Most of her books are about the misunderstandings between men and women. A classic is : The Argument Culture: Changing the Way We Argue and Debate

See Deborah Tannen http://www.deborahtannen.com/

 

Page 221

On Citizenship:

The classic sociological statement on Citizenship is by T.H.Marshall and can be found at:

http://www.jura.uni-bielefeld.de/lehrstuehle/davy/wustldata/1950_Marshall_Citzenship_and_Social_Class_OCR.pdf

 

On TH Marshall see: Citizenship Today: Contemporary Relevance of T.H. Marshall by Martin Bulmer & Anthony Rees ( University of Southampton) 1996: Routledge

 

For recent debates, see the journal Citizenship Studies

http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ccst20#.VsnJ_yhQ0uI

 

Page 222 The Circle of Sociological Life

Note that I have rethought this a little since the first edition of the book. This is a different circle, reorganized and separating out public from ‘pop’ular sociology, hence adding a new phase.

Compare p192 1st edition, with p222 second edition.

Ideas keep moving on!

 

 

Page 222 – 3. Public Sociology

The core paper on Public Sociology by Burawoy can be downloaded from:
http://burawoy.berkeley.edu/Public%20Sociology,%20Live/Burawoy.pdf

And watched on:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8NxvPKGtkUQ

 

Michael Burawoy. A lot of his work can be accessed via his web site at:

http://burawoy.berkeley.edu/

 

For videos on Public Sociology, see:

http://burawoy.berkeley.edu/PS.Webpage/ps.videos.htm

 

On Margaret Archer and the Vatican

https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/people/qa-with-margaret-archer/2013413.article

 

 

Page 223

Studying sociology in professional courses will bring its own text books like Elaine Denny and Sarah Earle’s Sociology for Nurses (2016 3rd ed) or Anne Llewlynn & Lorraine Agu’s Sociology for Social Workers (2014, 2nd ed).

 

Page 224 Popular Sociology

For current listings of so called popular books in sociology see
‘Sociology Best Sellers’ – with a strong US bias:

https://contexts.org/articles/a-fresh-look-at-sociology-bestsellers/
For access to Laurie Taylor’s programme (which is also accessible on pod casts) , search:

Laurie Taylor   Thinking allowed:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006qy05

 

On Owen Jones. see

http://www.theguardian.com/profile/owen-jones

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCSYCo8uRGF39qDCxF870K5Q
On Naomi Klein, see

http://www.naomiklein.org/main
And Naomi Klein and Owen Jones together at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dhJA7HCPHDA

 

On Grayson Perry on identity The Channel Four programmes Who Are You?see

http://www.channel4.com/programmes/grayson-perry-who-are-you

 

On Antony Gormley on The Body, see

http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2004/apr/22/guesteditors3

 

On Sebastio Salagundi’s The Salt of the Earth (2014) dir Juliana Salagundi, Wim Wenders
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt3674140/

For a Trailer: see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OivMlWXtWpY

And his lecture on the The Drama of Photography

(A TED Lecture: Feb 2-13)

https://www.ted.com/talks/sebastiao_salgado_the_silent_drama_of_photography?language=en

 

 

See Pierre Bourdieu at work as a public intellectual, see …..

You Tube: Sociology as a Martial Art

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Csbu08SqAuc

(but it is in French with translation)

 

 

Page 224
The term ‘Moral Imagination’ was probably first used by the literary critic Lionel Trilling; and is certainly the title of a book by Getrude Himmelfarb (1907).

 

Page 225 -6

On the Value Debate, see For Max Weber’s classic texts: -6 http://www.ne.jp/asahi/moriyuki/abukuma/weber_texts.html

Look especially at: Objectivity in social science, Science as a vocation :Politics as a vocation. All downloadable.

 

Page 228

See my discussion on the Common Ground in
Ken Plummer Intimate Citizenship 2003 : Washington Chapter 7

Cosmopolitan Sexualities

 

A Classic illustration of this The Golden Rule

Ancient Egyptian: Eloquent Peasant, 109 – 110

Baha’i Faith: Gleanings

Buddhism: Udana-Varga 5.1, Samyutta Nikaya v.353, Sutta Nipata 705

Christianity: Bible Matthew 7.12, Matthew 22.36-40, Leviticus 19.18

Confucianism: Analects 15.23, Mencius VII.A.4

Hinduism: Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva 113.8, Mahabharata 5:1517

Humanism: British Humanist Society

Native American Spirituality: The Great Law of Peace, Black Elk, Pima proverb

Islam: Forty Hadith of an-Nawawi 13

ainism: Acarangasutra 5.101-2, Sutrakritanga 1.11.33

Judaism: Leviticus 19.18, Shabbat 31a

Shinto:Ko-ji-ki Hachiman Kasuga

Sikhism: Guru Granth Sahib, pg. 1299

Sufism: Javad Nurbakhsh

Taoism: T’ai Shang Kan Ying P’ien, 213-218

Unitarianism: Unitarian principle

Wicca: Wiccan Rede

Yoruba: Yoruba Proverb (Nigeria)

Zoroastrianism: Shayast-na-Shayast 13.29

See on line: http://www.religioustolerance.org/reciproc.htm

 

 

Page 228 -9

Here is a short list of works to help you take some of these ideas further.

 

On Care
You Tube: See some speakers on care:

Nel Noddings : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ns-XreddOis

Joan Tronto Caring Democracy: Markets, Equality and Justice NYU Press 2013

And see her on line at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H-utAjZ_obc

 

Reading:
Joan Tronto   Caring Democracy
Marian Barnes Care in Everyday Life

Michael D.Fine A Caring Society? Care and the Dilemmas of Human Service in the Human Service Industry in the 21st Century 2007 Palgrave

Natan Sznaider The Compassionate Temperament: care and Cruelty in Modern Society 2001 Rowman and Littlefield

Nial Scott & Jonathan Seglow Altruism 2007 Open University McGraw Hill

Ian Wilkinson Suffering: A Sociological Introduction 2005 Polity Press

 

On Freedom. Equality and Justice, see

Michael Sandel’s famous seminar /lecture discussions on the You Tube at:

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL30C13C91CFFEFEA6

 

On Justice

Amartya Sen                         The Idea of Justice (2009) Allen Lane.

Michael Sandel                                  Justice: What’s the right thing to do? (2007/2009) Penguin
Iris Marion Young               Justice and the politics of difference (1990) Princeton

Nancy Fraser                                    ‘From Redistribution to Recognition: Dilemmas of Justice in a ‘Post-socialist’ Age’.           in Nancy Fraser. Justice Interruptus (1997: Chapter 1)
————                               The Scales of Justice

Sam Harris                            The Moral Landscape:How Science Can Determine Human Values (2011) Bantham.

Lukes, Steven                                   Moral Relativism 2008 Profile

Peter Singer                          Writings on an Ethical Life (2000) Harper Collins
Ronld Dworkin                                Justice for Hedgehogs (2011)

 

 

On Dialogue

Taylor, Charles et al                      Multiculturalism: Examining the politics of recognition (1994) Princeton

Frank, Arthur                                   Letting Stories Breathe: A Socio-Narratology (2010)

Bakhtin, Michel                                 The Dialogic Imagination
Habermas, Jurgen              Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action (1992) Polity

Arnett, Ronald C. et al                    Communication Ethics, Literacy: Dialogue & Difference (2009) Sage
Benhabib, Seyla                               The Claims of Culture: Equality and diversity in the global era (2002)

Zygmunt Bauman               Postmodern Ethics (1999) Blackwell

Lois McNay                           Against Recognition (2008) Polity

Kwame Anthony Appiah   The Ethics of Identity (2007) Princeton

 

Page 229

On Cosmopolitanism

What is Cosmopolitanism?
For the Ghanian-American philosopher Kwame Anthony Appiah, in his book Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a world of Strangers ( 2006)) it is a ‘universal concern and respect for legitimate difference’ (Appiah,2006:xv). For the Swedish anthropologist Ulf Hannerz (in Ulf Hannerz   Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places.( 1996) it is ‘a mode of managing meaning’ ‘ a willingness to engage with the other’. ‘It entails an intellectual and aesthetic openness toward divergent cultural experiences, a search for contrasts rather than uniformity. ……(It is) a state of readiness: an ability to make one’s way into other cultures, through listening, looking, intuiting and reflecting (Hannerz: 1996: p103). For the German sociologist Ulrich Beck (who is at the forefront of sociological writers in this field) we have arrived at the ‘cosmopolitan moment’ as an emergent and distinctive feature of modernity: ‘the human condition has itself become cosmopolitan’. We live with the ideas that ‘local, national, ethnic, religious and cosmopolitan cultures and traditions interpenetrate, interconnect and intermingle – cosmopolitanism without provincialism is empty, provincialism without cosmopolitanism is blind’ (Beck Cosmopolitan Vision 2006:p7). For the British sociologist, Robert Fine, cosmopolitanism is bound up deeply with international law and human rights. Indeed, cosmopolitanism is both ‘a determinate social form’ which ‘reconfigures’ a whole sphere of (potentially contradictory) rights as well as being a ‘form of consciousness that involves an understanding of the concept of cosmopolitanism and a capacity to develop the concept in imaginative and reflexive’. He sees it as both outlook (a way of seeing the world) and a condition ( an existing form of the world) (In Cosmopolitanism p 111, 134.) Finally, for the influential US feminist philosopher Martha Nussbaum, it raises the issue of a ‘decent world culture’ and a world moral community:

 

If our world is to be a decent world in the future, we must acknowledge right now that we are citizens of one interdependent world, held together by mutual fellowship as well as the pursuit of mutual advantage, by compassion as well as self interest, by a love of human dignity, in all people, even when there is nothing to gain from cooperating with them. Or rather even when we have to gain the biggest thing of all: participation in a just and morally decent world. Martha Nussbaum Frontiers of Justice 2006: p324

 

On Human development and Human Flourishing

Severine Deneulin with Lial Shahini eds An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach. 2009 Earthscan

On Martha Nussbaum and Capabilties:

Books

  • Martha Nussbaum (2011), Creating Capabilities; The Human Development Approach. Harvard University Press.
  • Séverine Deneulin with Lila Shahani (eds) (2009), An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach, available online at ca/en/ev-143029-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
  • Sakiko Fukuda-Parr and Shiv Kumar (eds) (2009), Handbook in Human Development, Delhi: Oxford University Press.
  • Amartya Sen (2009), The Idea of Justice, London: Allen Lane
  • Sabina Alkire (2002), Valuing Freedoms, Oxford University Press
  • Martha Nussbaum (2000), Women and Human Development, Cambridge University Press
  • Amartya Sen (1999), Development as Freedom, Oxford University Press
  • Amartya Sen (1992), Inequality Re-examined, Oxford University Press

Introductory articles

  • Ingrid Robeyns  (2011), “The Capability Approach”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/capability-approach.
  • Ingrid Robeyns (2005), “The Capability Approach: A Theoretical Survey”, Journal of Human Development 6(1): 93–114.
  • Sabina Alkire (2005), “Why the Capability Approach”, Journal of Human Development 6(1): 115–33.
  • Martha Nussbaum (2003) “Capabilities as Fundamental Entitlements: Sen and Social Justice”, Feminist Economics 9 (2–3): 33–59.
  • Sabina Alkire (2002), “Dimensions of Human Development”, World Development 30 (2), 181–205.
  • Amartya Sen (1993),” Capability and Well-Being”, in M. Nussbaum and A. Sen (eds.) The Quality of Life, Oxford Clarendon Press, pp. 30–53.
  • Martha Nussbaum (1993), “Non-Relative Virtues: An Aristotelian Approach”, in M. Nussbaum and A. Sen (eds) The Quality of Life, Oxford Clarendon Press, pp. 242–69.
  • Amartya Sen (1989), “Development as Capability Expansion”, Journal of Development Planning 19: 41–58, reprinted in: Sakiko Fukuda-Parr and A.K. Shiva Kumar (eds.) (2003), Readings in Human Development, Oxford University Press, pp. 3–16
  • Amartya Sen (1988), “The Concept of Development”, in Behram and Strinivasan (eds.) Handbooks of Development Economics. Elsevier: North-Holland, pp. 3–23.

 

There are also web sites that provide entrances:

Web Sites on Humanism, Human Flourishing and Common Grounds

Human Development and Capabilities Association (HDCA)

“is a global community of academics and practitioners that seeks to build an intellectual community around the ideas of human development and the capability approach, and relate these ideas to the policy arena.  The association promotes research within many disciplines, ranging from economics to philosophy, development studies, health, education, law, government, sociology, and more. Our members live in over 70 countries worldwide

https://hd-ca.org/

Search for Common Ground: Understanding differences, working on commonalities

“Founded in 1982, Search for Common Ground works to transform the way the world deals with conflict – away from adversarial approaches and towards collaborative problem solving. We work with local partners to find culturally appropriate means to strengthen societies’ capacity to deal with conflicts constructively: to understand the differences and act on the commonalities. Using innovative tools and working at different levels of society, we engage in pragmatic long-term processes of conflict transformation. Our toolbox includes media production – radio, TV, film and print – mediation and facilitation, training, community organizing, sports, theater and music. We promote both individual and institutional change and are committed to measuring the results of our work and increase our effectiveness through monitoring and evaluation. We currently work in 26 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East.”

http://www.sfcg.org/sfcg/sfcg_intro.html

 

On Rights and Dignity

Human Rights

Fagan, Andrew                   The Atlas of Human Rights 2010 Myriad

Morris, Lydia ed                  Rights: Sociological Perspectives 2006 Routledge

Freeman, Michael               Human Rights 2002 Polity

Ishay, M.R. (2004)                The History of Human Rights: From ancient times to the globalization era, California: California University Press

Ishay, Micheline R ed                     The Human Rights Reader ( 2nd ed 2007 Routledge)

Lukes, Steven                                   ‘Five Fables About Human Rights’ in On Human Rights ed Stephen Shute and Susan Huxley (1993: Oxford)

Kay Schafer and Sidonie Smith      Human rights and Narrated Lives: The ethics of recognition (2004) Palgrave

Ken Plummer                                   Intimate Citizenship: Private Decisions and Public Dialogues (2003)Washington

 

 

Page 230

Charles Taylor sees the social imaginary as ‘the ways people imagine their social existence, how they fit together with others, how things go on between them and their fellows, the expectations that are normally met, and the deep normative notions and images that underlies these expectations” (2003: p23).

Charles Taylor Modern Social Imaginaries 2003, Duke
http://www.cjsonline.ca/reviews/socialimaginaries.html
http://ant.sagepub.com/content/6/3/322.abstract
John Thompson says the imagnary is the “The creative and symbolic dimensions of the social world through which people live their collective images of life” (Studies in the Theory of Ideology, 1984, page 6).

 

The idea derives from Cornelius Castoriades, 1975, The Imaginary Institution of Society. 1975. It enables us to see how people can imagine their lives as a whole. The idea can work to help clarify boundaries and horizons, limits and possibilities. Utopian imaginaries might lead to the emancipation of individuals from entrenched institutions?

 

There is a Centre for ‘Imaginaries of the Future’ : see

https://imaginariesofthefuture.wordpress.com/

 

 

Page 232

 

Suffering

See Iain Wilkinson http://www.kent.ac.uk/scarr/events/finalpapers/wilkinson.pdf

http://www.medicalsociologyonline.org/oldsite/archives/issue11/probsuf.html

 

Good lives

See Lisa MacFarquhar Strangers Drowning: Voyages to the Brink of Moral Extremity

See also my thoughts on this book:

https://kenplummer.com/2016/01/14/a-book-to-start-the-year-with/

It is the story of ‘extreme do – gooders’, obsessed altruists who push their lives to ‘moral extremity’, wanting above all to solve the world’s problems in a directly practical way – and to be a good person. They shun worlds of comfort, self indulgence and money, and engage with an extreme ethical commitment that means they must do good above all else. They show little interest in anything other than maximising their behaviour to have a good impact on the world. This ‘driveness’ largely come out of childhood experiences, and often religion. They lack the ability which most (?) of us seem to have to shut out the unbearable sufferings of the world- so we can just get on with our own life! Yet whilst these people face many difficulties, they are sort of happy. I wondered as I read the book if this was perhaps the start of a new field of enquiry: the sociology of ‘goodness’?

Larissa MacFarguahar is a journalist at the New Yorker and her book constructs intriguing third person accounts throughout – bringing her seemingly extraordinary people alive in their complexity; and at the same time she weaves through the book a much wider reading of the philosophers, social scientists, self help advocates and novelists who have been critical of such a stance of the world. It all makes for compelling reading.

Let me sample some of the key unusual and maybe uncommon people who tell their stories in this book. Here is Aaron who devotes his life to animal’s rights and has done a great deal to reduce the sufferings of chickens in the world. Here is Dorothy originally a nurse and now in her mid-80s, who has devoted her life to women’s health and midwifery in Mulukuku, Nicaragua. Her former husband, Charles, was impressed by Ghandi and had devoted his life to peace protests. (He also devised a scheme called the World Equity Budget (WEB), which allowed him to calculate, and live on, his fair share of the world’s wealth: $12,000 a year). We meet a couple, Sue and Hector, who adopt some 20 children, many with profound disabilities and troubled lives. They face one problem after another, but have no reservations at all about doing this. There’s Baba, a risk taker if ever there was one, who found a leper colony in India (and tests his son’s courage by sending him to fetch water at a well where a tiger has been heard roaring. And then there is Kimberley, a devoted church goer, who ends up as a missionary in Mozambique. She donates a kidney to a stranger, even as her act inspires hostility from others. And then there is the Buddhist priest in Japan who counsels people who want to commit suicide only to have them turn on him in his hour of need.

The book takes its title Strangers Drowning from Peter Singer’s ideas on ‘effective giving’, and charity as a purely rationalistic, utilitarian act. Human beings are really morally required to reduce the suffering of others in the most effective ways they can. Hence: if you saw two groups of people drowning – your mother, and two other people, who would you save? Saving your mother has less value than two other people. For me this is a non-starter as an ethical puzzle: I would save my mother. But not so for Singer – and most of the people in this book- for whom a refined moral calculus depends upon a highly rationalized counting system.

Of course, the big issue is whether will go along with this long standing tradition of rational utilitarianism, developed by Jeremy Bentham; and Peter Singer has to be the major and most well known of modern proponents. But this view raises a lot of problems. To start with, what might the world look like if everybody did these extremes acts for others, forsaking their own? As MacFarquhar puts it so pointedly: What would the world look like is everyone thought like a do gooder? (p300). This world would be a very different place from the one we live in now. Indeed it is hard to imagine. In part this is because the human problems of suffering and poverty etc would no longer be here; if the problem is solved , what is to be done? And partly because the very thing we take to be humanity – the muddled, vulnerable, frail little animal – would be no more. Suffering and dealing with problems is actually a key feature of our very humanity. A world where everything gets solved in one way only would not be a very human world.

 

Page 233

Life in a Day

https://www.youtube.com/user/lifeinaday

 

Page 234 : Inspirations? New Approaches? Looking Ahead?
And so to end with: here are some writings, talks and ideas to get you talking about where sociology is heading…..

 

John Holmwood Re-Imagining Sociology after the public University

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HiBh-iBpfs8

Universities in Crisis: Markets V Publics

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=COWrlYyeqys

 

Max Haiven Crises of Imagination and Crises of Power

Max Haiven and Alex Khasnabish The Radical Imagination (2014)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jsCUa5IfrX8

 

David Beer Punk Sociology (2014) Palgrave

See: http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2014/03/30/book-review-punk-sociology/

https://simplysociology.wordpress.com/2014/01/28/a-review-of-punk-sociology/

 

David Bollier   Think like a commoner: A short introduction to the life of the Commons (2014)

To hear what the idea of the commons see, click

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0hqrPSR51bw

 

Listen to the sociologist Roberto Unger who sets an important image of what sociology could become:

listen to: http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2014/01/roberto-mangabeira-unger-what-is-wrong-with-the-social-sciences-today/

His critique is mainly of economics but he argues it applies to all the social sciences.
Page 168

Page 168

 

Numbers

 

 

 

Page 169
Criminal statistics

A useful book to help you understand criminal statistics is

The Mismeasure of Crime by Clayton Mosher et al: see

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Mismeasure-Crime-Clayton-Mosher/dp/1412981816/ref=sr_1_7?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1456154174&sr=1-7&keywords=Critical+criminal+statistics

 

On Rape Statistics, see

Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault by Candace Kruttschnitt, William D. Kalsbeek, and Carol C. House, Editors

http://www.nap.edu/catalog/18605/estimating-the-incidence-of-rape-and-sexual-assault

 

 

Page 170 : Narrative

 

Narratives and stories are among the most powerful instruments for
ordering human experience. Narrative can be expressed in oral or
written language, still or moving pictures, or a mixture of these media.
It is present in myths, legends, fables, tales, short stories, epics,
history, tragedy, drama, comedy, pantomime, paintings, stained glass
windows, movies, local news, and conversation. In its almost infinite
variety of forms, it is present at all times, in all places, and in all
societies. Indeed, narrative starts with the very history of mankind….”
(Barthes, 1975).

 

We tell ourselves stories in order to live

Joan Didion, title of her collected stories.

 

Stories animate human life: that is their work.

Arthur W.Frank   Letting Stories Breathe

 

Narrative makes the earth habitable for human beings” Frank, again: p46

 

We have each of us, a life story, an inner narrative – whose continuity, whose sense is our lives…. A man needs such a narrative, a continuous inner narrative to maintain his identity…

Oliver Sachs opening to The man who mistook his wife for a hat

 

.. There is no best way to tell a story about society. Many genres, many methods, many formats – they can all do the trick. Instead of ideal ways to do it, the world gives us possibilities among which we choose. Every way of telling the story of a society does some of the job superbly but other parts not so well……

Howard S Becker     Telling About Society 2007 : 285

 

“All sorrows can be born if you put them in a story or tell a story about them….” Hannah Arendt: The Human Condition

 

This is what fools people: a man is always a teller of tales, he lives surrounded by his stories and the stories of others, he sees everything that happens to him through them; and he tries to live his life as if he were (recounting it) telling a story.

Jean Paul Sartre Nausea

 

Our life is essentially a set of stories we tell ourselves about our past, present and future… we ‘story’ our lives…in fact, restorying continually goes on within us

G.M. Kenyon and L.W. Randall Restorying Our Lives

 

Our society has become a recited society, in three senses: it is defined by stories (Recits, the fables constituted by our advertising and informational media) by citations of stories, and by the interminable recitation of stories.

Michel de Certeau The Practice of Everyday Life, 1984 p186

 

The significance of narrative in sociology cannot be understimated. We are the narrating animal, telling stories in order to live. As Roland Barthes famously remarked:

 

“Narratives and stories are among the most powerful instruments for ordering human experience. Narrative can be expressed in oral or written language, still or moving pictures, or a mixture of these media. It is present in myths, legends, fables, tales, short stories, epics, history, tragedy, drama, comedy, pantomime, paintings, stained glass windows, movies, local news, and conversation. In its almost infinite variety of forms, it is present at all times, in all places, and in all societies. Indeed, narrative starts with the very history of mankind “ ( Barthes, 1975).

 

Here are some of the kinds of descriptions or narratives that sociologists encounter and indeed make themselves:

 

  1. Common sense narratives- this involves ‘just telling it as it is’. Don’t worry too much about it. Listen to what people say and report it as well as you can.
  2. Statistical narratives – counting it when you can. Try and get to the complexities by counting and measuring. Then you should be able to make generalisations across a host of cases. Through statistics – giving us broad features of who does what where when and maybe why?
  3. Idiographic narrative – the unique tale. Get close to one account of the world, really try and understand it. Capture the in depth complexity in your writing.
  4. Thematic narratives – looking at substance for core themes. Take a number of cases and try to tease out common threads ands themes into your own account. Here you may want to lookout for Formal and structural narratives – finding underlying pattern
  5. Hermeneutic circle narratives ?????
  6. Dialogic and performative narratives – probing self and communication seriously

 

We can gain these narratives:
Through ethnography – giving us an inner sense of the culture, of what is going on here?
Through biographies – giving us a feel of how lives are lived and experience this?
Through documents – giving us a natural glimpse of what is going on – in court records, films, reports
Through visuals – giving us images through which we can see what is going on

 

In a simple way- and following the highly influential anthropologist Clifford Gerrtz- we might want to distinguish between descriptions which are thin, and others which are thick or deep……

 

And ponder the issue of deep description (Geertz).
http://hypergeertz.jku.at/GeertzTexts/Thick_Description.htm

 

Geertz, Clifford. “Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture”. In The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. (New York: Basic Books, 1973) 3-30.

See: http://hypergeertz.jku.at/GeertzTexts/Thick_Description.htm

 

Page 170

 

The Roshomon Effect

 

This is a term based on the famous Japanese film. Akira Kurosawa’s world renowned film, Rashomon, (1950) set in 12th century feudal Japan, tells the story of a woman raped and her samurai husband murdered by a notorious bandit Tajomaru who is later captured and put on trial. The story is then told – through various cunning devices – from the perspectives of four different characters – the bandit, the woman, the samurai – and a passing by wood cutter. All the stories are mutually contradictory and the film poses a challenge about which of the perspectives is true.

See: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0042876/

 

Page 172-3: Human Social Life as perspectival, as a point of view

 

In many ways this is well known and sociologists have to take it seriously. As the literary critic Kenneth Burke has famously put it: “every way of seeing is also a way of not seeing” (1935:70); that “every insight contains its own special kind of blindness” (1984:41). It is even present in a famous childhood poem (by the American poet John Godfrey Saxe) which tells the tale of six blind (but learned) men from Indostan who describe their physical observations of an elephant. Blindfolded, eah is asked to ffeel the epelphadn and describe what they find; and each describe it differently- as ‘very like a wall’,as ‘ a snake’, as ‘a spear’,as ’ a tree’,as ‘a fan’ and even as a ‘rope’: ‘ each was partly in the right , and all were in the wrong’:

 

So oft in theologic wars,
The disputants, I ween,
Rail on in utter ignorance
Of what each other mean,
And prate about an Elephant
Not one of them has seen!

 

 

 

See: http://www.wordinfo.info/words/index/info/view_unit/1/?letter=B&spage=3

 

In both the Tale of the Elephant and the tale of Rasomon, we see the problem of competing perspectives circling around the truth. And these are fables to remember as we study society, because society is a whirling stream of different perspectives and partial truths, stories told from different angles and different perspectives. The sociologist has to recognise this not only in what is being studied, but also in what he or she subsequently writes – the sociologists tales which we can be sure will be challenged by other perspectives in time, both within sociology and outside of. This is the deeply problematic nature of social reality and its varying perspectives……..

 

Both of these accounts though leave something missing. There is a true elephant and somebody did rape and murder! So while we do need to recognise the one sided nature of perspectives for sure, we also must develop a wider account that gets closert to the truth. Ultimately the more perspectives we can develop, the more accurate our portrait may be. We may not be able to tell the whole story, but some stories come much nearer to it than others……

 

 

Page 174

 

Verstehen is a method advocated by Max Weber to highlight the “understanding” and “interpretation” of meaning and human activities. It tries to understand people on their own terms and from their own point-of-view.

 

Hermeneutics refers generally to the ways in which study the interpretive process ( it was originally concerned with the interpretation of written texts). – how do people go about making sense (translating) and interpreting the world around them…Such underatanding has a cucruclar character – each part of an understanding links to other parts.

 

“””The hermeneutic circle describes the process of understanding a text hermeneutically. It refers to the idea that one’s understanding of the text as a whole is established by reference to the individual parts and one’s understanding of each individual part by reference to the whole. Neither the whole text nor any individual part can be understood without reference to one another, and hence, it is a circle. However, this circular character of interpretation does not make it impossible to interpret a text, rather, it stresses that the meaning of text must be found within its cultural, historical, and literary context.”””WIKI   (Habermas)

More WIKI…Jürgen Habermas considered his major achievement to be the development of the concept and theory of communicative reason or communicative rationality, which distinguishes itself from the rationalist tradition by locating rationality in structures of interpersonal linguistic communication rather than in the structure of either the cosmos or the knowing subject. This social theory advances the goals of human emancipation, while maintaining an inclusive universalist moral framework. This framework rests on the argument called universal pragmatics – that all speech acts have an inherent telos (the Greek word for “end”) — the goal of mutual understanding, and that human beings possess the communicative competence to bring about such understanding. Habermas built the framework out of the speech-act philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, J. L. Austin, and John Searle, the sociological theory of the interactional constitution of mind and self of George Herbert Mead, the theories of moral development of Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg, and the discourse ethics of his Heidelberg colleague Karl-Otto Apel.

He carried forward the traditions of Kant and the Enlightenment and of democratic socialism through his emphasis on the potential for transforming the world and arriving at a more humane, just, and egalitarian society through the realization of the human potential for reason, in part through discourse ethics. While Habermas conceded that the Enlightenment is an “unfinished project,” he argued it should be corrected and complemented, not discarded. In this he distanced himself from the Frankfurt School, criticizing it, as well as much of postmodernist thought, for excessive pessimism, misdirected radicalism and exaggerations.

Within sociology, Habermas’s major contribution was the development of a comprehensive theory of societal evolution and modernization focusing on the difference between communicative rationality and rationalization on the one hand and strategic/instrumental rationality and rationalization on the other. This included a critique from a communicative standpoint of the differentiation-based theory of social systems developed by Niklas Luhmann, a student of Talcott Parsons.

His defence of modernity and civil society has been a source of inspiration to others, and is considered a major philosophical alternative to the varieties of poststructuralism. He has also offered an influential analysis of late capitalism.

Habermas saw the rationalization, humanization, and democratization of society in terms of the institutionalization of the potential for rationality that is inherent in the communicative competence that is unique to the human species. Habermas believed communicative competence has developed through the course of evolution, but in contemporary society it is often suppressed or weakened by the way in which major domains of social life, such as the market, the state, and organizations, have been given over to or taken over by strategic/instrumental rationality, so that the logic of the system supplants that of the lifeworld.

Writing

See also the project: Writing Across Boundaries.

This is a project which gets various social scientists who have published quite a bit to reflect on the nature of their writing. It includes pieces by Howard Becker, Harvey Molotch, Marilyn Strathborn and Liz Stanley, myself and many others: see

http://www.dur.ac.uk/writingacrossboundaries

On this website you will also find resources relating to a variety of themes that engage writers in the social sciences. These include and Drafting and Plotting, the Data-Theory Relationship, Narrative, Rhetoric, and Representation and Hints and Tips on Writing

 

Some challenges to orthodox methodologies include: include Chela Sanoval’s Methodology of the Oppressed ( 2000), Les Back, The Art of Listening (2007), Norman Denzin The Qualitative Manifesto: A Call to Arms (2010). Kate Orton-Johnson et al (2013) ed Digital Sociology: Critical Perspectives ; Deborah Lupton, Digital Sociology,

 

Critical qualitative research

Norman Denzin                   The Qualitative Manifesto: A Call to Arms (2010) Left Coast Press

D.Soyini Madison     Critical Ethnography: Method, Ethics and Performance. (2005) Sage

Gayle Letherby                    Feminist Research in Theory and Practice (2003) OU Press

Dorothy Smith                     The Everyday World as Problematic (1988) Northeastern University Press

————                    Writing the Social (1998) Toronto

Marjorie de Vault     Liberating Methodology: Feminism and Research (1999) Temple

Michael Buroway et al         Global Ethnography: Forces, Connections and Imaginations in a Postmodern World (2000) California

Norman Denzin

and Yvonne Lincoln           The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research 3rd edition Sage (2007) (but other editions are worth looking at- they are different)

Linda T Smith           Decolonizing Methodologies Zed Books 1999

Norman K.Denzin &

Yvonna S.Lincoln&

Linda Tuhiwai Smith           Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies eds (2008) Sage

Judith Butler                          Giving a Stance of Oneself (2005) Fordham University

Kath Browne et al    Queer Methods and Methodologies (2010) Ashgate

 

 

 


CHAPTER SEVEN

SUFFERING INEQUALITIES: P180 – 211

 

 

Page 180-1

 

To start with listen to:

Danny Dorling on Inequalities

http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2012/05/danny-dorling-on-inequality/

 

and a quick listing? Try

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwIEZDMDBo4

 

Page 180

 

Here is the full version of ‘ Man’s inhumanity to man makes countless thousands mourn! ‘ By Robert Burns: Man Was Made To Mourn: A Dirge 1784
http://www.robertburns.org/works/55.shtml

1784

Type: Dirge

When chill November’s surly blast
Made fields and forests bare,
One ev’ning, as I wander’d forth
Along the banks of Ayr,
I spied a man, whose aged step
Seem’d weary, worn with care;
His face furrow’d o’er with years,
And hoary was his hair.”Young stranger, whither wand’rest thou?”
Began the rev’rend sage;
“Does thirst of wealth thy step constrain,
Or youthful pleasure’s rage?
Or haply, prest with cares and woes,
Too soon thou hast began
To wander forth, with me to mourn
The miseries of man.”The sun that overhangs yon moors,
Out-spreading far and wide,
Where hundreds labour to support
A haughty lordling’s pride;-
I’ve seen yon weary winter-sun
Twice forty times return;
And ev’ry time has added proofs,
That man was made to mourn.”O man! while in thy early years,
How prodigal of time!
Mis-spending all thy precious hours-
Thy glorious, youthful prime!
Alternate follies take the sway;
Licentious passions burn;
Which tenfold force gives Nature’s law.
That man was made to mourn.”Look not alone on youthful prime,
Or manhood’s active might;
Man then is useful to his kind,
Supported in his right:
But see him on the edge of life,
With cares and sorrows worn;
Then Age and Want-oh! ill-match’d pair-
Shew man was made to mourn.

“A few seem favourites of fate,
In pleasure’s lap carest;
Yet, think not all the rich and great
Are likewise truly blest:
But oh! what crowds in ev’ry land,
All wretched and forlorn,
Thro’ weary life this lesson learn,
That man was made to mourn.

“Many and sharp the num’rous ills
Inwoven with our frame!
More pointed still we make ourselves,
Regret, remorse, and shame!
And man, whose heav’n-erected face
The smiles of love adorn, –
Man’s inhumanity to man
Makes countless thousands mourn!

“See yonder poor, o’erlabour’d wight,
So abject, mean, and vile,
Who begs a brother of the earth
To give him leave to toil;
And see his lordly fellow-worm
The poor petition spurn,
Unmindful, tho’ a weeping wife
And helpless offspring mourn.

“If I’m design’d yon lordling’s slave,
By Nature’s law design’d,
Why was an independent wish
E’er planted in my mind?
If not, why am I subject to
His cruelty, or scorn?
Or why has man the will and pow’r
To make his fellow mourn?

“Yet, let not this too much, my son,
Disturb thy youthful breast:
This partial view of human-kind
Is surely not the last!
The poor, oppressed, honest man
Had never, sure, been born,
Had there not been some recompense
To comfort those that mourn!

“O Death! the poor man’s dearest friend,
The kindest and the best!
Welcome the hour my aged limbs
Are laid with thee at rest!
The great, the wealthy fear thy blow
From pomp and pleasure torn;
But, oh! a blest relief for those
That weary-laden mourn!”

 

Page 181

see Goran Therborn talking about inequalities at

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zvp2omouPNs

 

Page 182

As the Irish poet Louis McNeice beautifully put it: the world is ‘ crazier and more of it than we think, the drunkenness of things various’. Human worlds are lush with multiplicities and possibilities. See: http://www.thepoetryexchange.co.uk/uncategorized/snow-by-louis-macneice-2/

 

 

Page 183- 7

On the durability of inequalities, see Charles Tilly: Durable Inequality (1999) Berkeley: University of California Press. It’s blurb states:

“Charles Tilly, in this eloquent manifesto, presents a powerful new approach to the study of persistent social inequality. How, he asks, do long-lasting, systematic inequalities in life chances arise, and how do they come to distinguish members of different socially defined categories of persons? Exploring representative paired and unequal categories, such as male/female, black/white, and citizen/noncitizen, Tilly argues that the basic causes of these and similar inequalities greatly resemble one another. In contrast to contemporary analyses that explain inequality case by case, this account is one of process. Categorical distinctions arise, Tilly says, because they offer a solution to pressing organizational problems. Whatever the “organization” is–as small as a household or as large as a government–the resulting relationship of inequality persists because parties on both sides of the categorical divide come to depend on that solution, despite its drawbacks. Tilly illustrates the social mechanisms that create and maintain paired and unequal categories with a rich variety of cases, mapping out fertile territories for future relational study of durable inequality”
For a critical note on this book, see Mike Savage:

http://www.socresonline.org.uk/3/2/savage.html

 

 

 

 

The Facts of World Inequalities
Danny Dorling on Inequalities

http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2012/05/danny-dorling-on-inequality/

and a quick listing? Try

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwIEZDMDBo4

 

Page 184-5

Here is a clickable listing of the Data list given on page 183-6
World Top Incomes Database http://topincomes.parisschoolofeconomics.eu/

Rich List (Forbes, Sunday Times) http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/public/richlist/

http://www.forbes.com/billionaires/list/

Oxfam Report on Global Poverty:

https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/file_attachments/bp210-economy-one-percent-tax-havens-180116-en_0.pdf

 

For the original Credit Suisse Study see:

Credit Suisse (2015) ‘Global Wealth Databook 2015’. Total net wealth at constant exchange rate (USD billion).

http://publications.credit-suisse.com/tasks/render/file/index.cfm?fileid=C26E3824-E868-56E0-

CCA04D4BB9B9ADD5

An Economy for the 1% 18th January 2016

 

 

Global Slavery Index http://www.globalslaveryindex.org/

Human Development Index (HDI) http://hdr.undp.org/en
Inequality Adjusted Human Development Index
Gender Inequality Index (GID) http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/table-4-gender-inequality-index

see also: http://www.unwomen.org/en
Displaced Migrants: http://www.internal-displacement.org/

Human Security Index: http://www.humansecurityindex.org/

See also:

http://www.globalissues.org/article/26/poverty-facts-and-stats

 

Finally, The United Nations monitors the responses of states across the world, while Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch produce regular nation based comparisons and reports

 

Map of United Nations Indicators on Rights: http://indicators.ohchr.org/

Human Rights Watch http://www.hrw.org/

Amnesty International http://www.amnesty.org.uk/

Annual State Sponsored Homophobia Report on PDF

http://ilga.org/

and http://ilga.org/what-we-do/state-sponsored-homophobia-report/
The Vision of Humanity web site and follow up the leads it provides. See: http://www.visionofhumanity.org

(You will find both the Global Peace Index and The Terrorism Index)

Global Peace Index

http://www.visionofhumanity.org/#/page/indexes/global-peace-index

The Terrorism Index

Global Cost of Violence Report http://www.copenhagenconsensus.com/sites/default/files/conflict_assessment_-_hoeffler_and_fearon_0.pdf
Some more Data

Global wealth is increasingly concentrated in the hands of a small wealthy elite.

Oxfam’s frequently cited fact in 2014: ‘85 billionaires have the same wealth as the bottom half of the world’s population.’

In 2014, the richest 1% of people in the world owned 48% of global wealth, leaving just 52% to be shared between the other 99% of adults on the planet.1 Almost all of that 52% is owned by those included in the richest 20%, leaving just 5.5% for the remaining 80% of people in the world. If this trend continues of an increasing wealth share to the richest, the top 1% will have more wealth than the remaining 99% of people in just two years, as shown on Figure 2, with the wealth share of the top 1% exceeding 50% by 2016.

The Rich List

And in the UK, the Sunday Times Rich list published in April 2015 showed that the wealth of Britain’s richest people has more than doubled in the last ten years. The wealthiest 1,000 individuals and families now have a combined fortune of £547.126 BILLION up from £249.615 billion recorded in 2005.

Here is a list of Britain’s wealthiest 25 people, according to The Sunday Times Rich List.

1 Len Blavatnik £13.17 billion 
2 Sri and Gopi Hinduja £13 billion 
3 Galen and George Weston and family £11 billion 
4 Alisher Usmanov £9.8 billion 
5 David and Simon Reuben £9.7 billion 
6 Ernesto and Kirsty Bertarelli £9.45 billion 
7 Lakshmi Mittal and family £9.2 billion 
8 Kirsten and Jorn Rausing £8.7 billion 
9 The Duke of Westminster £8.56 billion 
10 Roman Abramovich £7.29 billion 
11 John Fredriksen and family £7.24 billion 
12 Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken and Michel de Carvalho £7.145 billion 
13 Sir David and Sir Frederick Barclay £6.5 billion 
14 Hans Rausing and family £6.4 billion 
15 Mohamed Bin Issa Al Jaber and family £5.935 billion 
16 Carrie and Francois Perrodo and family £5.8 billion 
17 Nathan Kirsh £5.06 billion 
18 Earl Cadogan and family £4.8 billion 
19 Nicky Oppenheimer and family £4.55 billion 
20 Sir Richard Branson and family £4.1 billion 
21 Bruno Schroder and family £3.76 billion 
22= Mike Ashley £3.5 billion 
22= Sir James Dyson and family £3.5 billion 
22= Sir Philip and Lady Green £3.5 billion 
25 Sir Henry Keswick and family £3.275 billion

What is shocking about all this is that the world has been gripped by a period of recession and austerity. So how is it possible that the rich – who caused the international banking crisis in the first place – have done so well out of it?

 

More Reading

 

Oxfam International (2014) Even It Up: Time to End Extreme Inequality

(2015) Wealth: Having it all and wanting more https://www.oxfam.org/en/research/wealth-having-it-all-and-wanting-more

 

Danny Dorling (2014) Inequality and the 1%
 (Verso, 2014)
A University of Oxford social geographer has written widely on the horrors of austerity – on poverty, inequality and the housing crisis. He explains why we cannot afford the rich.

 

Stewart Lansley and Joanna Mack (2015) Breadline Britain: The Rise of Mass Poverty One World. Poverty in Britain is now at crisis levels and the current government stigmatizes, excludes and blames the poor whilst protecting the rich.

 

Annette Hastings et al (2015) The Costs of the Cuts: The Impact on Local Givernments and Poorer Communities London: Rowntree see: http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/Summary-Final.pdf

 

Thomas Piketty (2014) Capital in the Twenty-First Century
 (Harvard University Press, 2014)
 Widely discussed, and already a classic, a French economist explores not just how unequal we have become but also shows how even more unequal we are rapidly becoming.

 

Goran Therborn (2013) The Killing Fields of Inequality. Cambridge: Polity

 

James Meek (2015 rev ed) Treasure Island: Why Britain Now Belongs to Some one Else. Verso Critical examination of the ways in which Britain’s public services have been sold off – so the rich benefit and the poor pay.

 

Kerry-Anne Mendoza (2015) Austerity: The Demolition of the Welfare State and the Rise of the Zombie Economy. Oxford: New Internationalist

 

Andrew Sayer (2015) Why we can’t afford the rich/ Bristol: Policy Press

A startling book by a well-known and respected sociologist. He shows how the new economy – and austerity– works to make the rich richer and the poor poorer; how this is now done on a massive scale as the rich live lives cut off from the 99% of the world. Full of quite shocking detail that leads one to ask : just how are they getting away with making our world such a terrible place?

 

Joseph Stiglitz (2012) The Price of Inequality: How Today’s Divided Society Endangers Our Future
 (W.W. Norton)
A Nobel Prize-winning economist paints a vivid picture.

 

Polly Toynbee & David Walker (2015) Cameron’s Coup: How The Tories took Britain to the Brink. Guardian Books. A journalist and obviously partisan book that shows just how much havoc the Coalition has hurled at Britain over the past five years.

 

John Urry (2014) Offshoring . Cambridge: Polity. One of the world’s leading sociologists details the problem of the rich ‘ffshoring’…..

 

Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett (2009) The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger
 (Bloomsbury Press, 2009)
Became an instant classic as it showed that by every measure that matters, from social trust to how long we live, relatively equal nations outperform nations where income concentrates at the top.
Page 186 On Caste

There are a number of films about the caste system on the You Tube: see

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FKZxAAAiJdg&index=3&list=PLDnc1tQT3zoGZgii9LxHrBgzxtVVuLe3E

 

See also: Arudhati Roy On Capitalism and Caste

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3tkQyqLnFbk

 

Page 187   On Slavery

See the documentary: Slavery- A 21st Century Evil (2011) at

http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/slavery-21st-century-evil/

Wikipedia has a list of films featuring slavery: see

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_films_featuring_slavery

 

Page 188 social class

For a review of the Mike Savage et al book

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/nov/13/social-class-21st-century-mike-savage-review

To ask what is your social class, see:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-34766169

 

A recent study to help you investigate the vast writings on social class, look at:

Will Atkinson Class (2015) Polity

An Amazon Blurb says:
Class is not only amongst the oldest and most controversial of all concepts in social science, but a topic which has fascinated, amused, incensed and galvanized the general public, too. But what exactly is a class ? How do sociologists study and measure it, and how does it correspond to everyday understandings of social difference? Is it now dead or dying in today s globalized and media–saturated world, or is it entering a new phase of significance on the world stage?

 

This book seeks to explore these questions in an accessible and lively manner, taking readers through the key theoretical traditions in class research, the major controversies that have shaken the field and the continuing effects of class difference, class struggle and class inequality across a range of domains.

 

The book will appeal to students and scholars in sociology, social policy, geography, education, cultural studies and health sciences.

 

 

Wendy Bottero Stratification: Social Division and Inequality 2005 Routledge

Tony Bennett, Mike Savage, Elizabeth Silva, Alan Warde, Modesto Gayo-Cal, David Wright: Culture, Class, Distinction. 2009   Routledge
Page 188-9 The Globally Excluded

See Children Living in the Guatemala City Dump; Children of the 4th World – Documentary

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O6SPy9qV1M4

 

The Precariat

See Guy Standing: his book A Precariat Charter and he discusses all this on:
“A Precariat Charter: From Denizens to Citizens”, a Seminar with Guy Standing
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGLSGeqF1Po

The notion of The Dispossessed is seen in the science fiction of Ursula Le Gn her novel of that name: hear:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ebb6V-4c0Xw
In human societies, differences are used as moral markers to establish how some are better than others. Moral worth is often attached to this labeling as boundaries are established of the normal and

For a discussion of class and moral boundaries, see especially the work of Michele Lamont: Money, Morals and Manners. 1994. Chicago ; and The Dignity of Working Men 2002 Harvard UP.

 

Page 189

Kimberley Crenshaw is usually seen as the first writers to talk about intersectionality, see her at:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KNKbGFoYC1Q
On intersectional theory: see :

Patricia Hill Collins   Black Feminist Thought 1990 , 2008 3rd ed Routledge
Yvette Taylor ed   Classed Intersections 2010, Ashgate

 

Page 191

On the BBC Survey and Mike Savage etc see

A New Model of Social Class? Findings from the BBC’s Great British Class Survey Experiment Sociology April 2013 vol. 47 no. 2 219-250
http://soc.sagepub.com/content/47/2/219.short

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/arts/books/non-fiction/article4605595.ece

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/0/21970879

 

Page 193

There is much on Bourdieu on the web site. See

HyperBourdieu© WorldCatalogue

http://hyperbourdieu.jku.at/

An online bibliography of comments and elaborations of Bourdieu’s work

http://web.archive.org/web/20080302205941/http://www.massey.ac.nz/~nzsrda/bourdieu/byauthgr.htm

Bourdieu Foundation

http://www.fondation-bourdieu.org/

 

A useful starting point here is the Wikipedia entry.

 

On gender, the literature is equally vast: sample-

  1. Connell Masculinities (1995; 2nd ed 2005) Polity

Amy S Wharton       The Sociology of Gender 2005   Blackwell

Angela Mcrobbie     The aftermath of feminism 2008 Sage

 

An important statement from a long standing central figure is:

Catherine A. MacKinnon    Are Women Human? 2006 Harvard

A contemporary history of feminism is:

Lynne Segal              Why Feminism? 1999 Polity

A sample of twenty first century feminist texts include:

Natasha Walter                    Living Dolls : The Return of sexism 2010 Virago

Kate Banyard                        The Equality Illusion 2010 Faber and Faber

Catherine Redfern & Kristin Aune Reclaiming the Word 2010 Zed
Page 194

Some recent work in this field published as this edition of the book goes to press can be found in the debates in Sociology One Line: The Matter of Race (August 2015: 20, 3, 13): see

http://www.socresonline.org.uk/20/3/13.html

A useful article that can be downloaded on racialization is from Didier Fassin, and he extends the work of Du Bois: see his article at

https://www.sss.ias.edu/files/pdfs/Fassin/Racialization.pdf

 

see also:
Black Lives Matter?

http://blacklivesmatter.com/
Page 195

A wide ranging tour of the current field of disability studies can be found in:

Lennard J.Davis the Disability Studies Reader 2010 3rd edition. Routledge

 

Page 196

The classic writing here is

Eve Kasofsky Sedgwick Epistemology of the Closet 1990 Harvester/ Penguin

Judith Butler   Gender Trouble 1990 Routledge

See also:

Nicki Sullivan A Critical Introduction to Queer Theory 2003 Edinburgh University

 

 

Page 197 The Generational and Age Order

The classic studies are by Mannheim and Eisenstadt:

Karl Mannheim ‘’The problem of generations’ in Collected works of Karl Mannheim Vol 5 p276-320.London: Routledge

S.N. Eisenstadt   From Generation to Generation 1956 Free Press

More recently see:

June Edmunds and Bryan S.Turner Generations, culture and society. 2002. Open University Press

 

For an application of generational theory, see my own work:

Ken Plummer Generational Sexualities, Subterranean Traditions and the Hauntings of the Sexual World: Some Preliminary Remarks   2010 Symbolic Interaction. Vol 33.No 2 p162-p190

 

Page 200 Voices of the Poor: Can anyone hear us was published by the UN in 2000.

It is the the first in a three-part series, about the common patterns that emerged from the poor people’s experiences in many different places. Chapter 1 sets out the conceptual framework and methodology. Chapter 2 discusses poverty from the perspective of the poor. Chapter 3 examines poor people’s experience with the state, and includes case studies of access to health care and education. Chapter 4 addresses the nature and quality of poor people’s interactions with civil society. Chapter 5 considers the household as a key social institution, and discusses gender relations within households and how these relations affect and are affected by larger institutions of society. Chapter 6 focuses on social fragmentation, and includes a discussion of social cohesion and social exclusion. Chapter 7 concludes the analysis and proposes some policy recommendations. The analysis leads to these conclusions: 1) poverty is multidimensional; 2) the state has been largely ineffective in reaching the poor; 3) the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the lives of the poor is limited, forcing the poor to depend primarily on their own informal networks; 4) households are crumbling under the stresses of poverty; and 5) the social fabric – poor people’s only “insurance” – is unraveling.

It can be downloaded in full: see: Deepa Narayan: Voices of the Poor: Can anyone hear us

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTPOVERTY/0,,contentMDK:20622514~menuPK:336998~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:336992,00.html

Volume 2 is subtitled: Crying Out for Change (2004).

 

Page 202

On divisive social processes in general, I have been influenced by – and would strongly recommend reading:

Iris Marion Young Justice and the Politics of Difference 1990 Princeton Chapter 2

 

Page 204

On marginalisation, see Iris Marion Young Justice and the Politics of Difference 1990 Princeton Chapter 2 :p53-6

On exclusion, see David Byrne Social Exclusion 2005 2nd edition Open University

On stereotyping, see Michael Pickering   Stereotyping: The Politics of Representation 2001 Palgrave

 

Page 204

The Process of Exploitation

See: Iris Marion Young Justice and the Politics of Difference 1990 Princeton Chapter 2 p48-53

 

Page 205

Violence as the division of last resort

There is an excellent text on this, strongly recommended:

Peter Iadicola & Anson Shupe: Violence, Inequality and Human Freedom. 2003 2nd edition. Rowman and Littlefield.

 

The Armed Conflict Survey (ACS) is a new annual publication that provides yearly data on fatalities, refugees and internally displaced people for all major armed conflicts, alongside in-depth analysis of their political, military and humanitarian dimensions. The first edition of the book covers the key developments and context of more than 40 conflicts, including those in Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Myanmar, Syria and Yemen.

The ACS features essays by some of the world’s leading authorities on armed conflict, who write on subjects such as:

  • the development of jihadism after 9/11;
  • hybrid warfare;
  • refugees and internally displaced people;
  • criminality and conflict;
  • the evolution of peacekeeping operations

see:

https://www.iiss.org/en/publications/acs/by%20year/armed-conflict-survey-2015-46e5

 

The IISS was founded in the UK in 1958 with a focus on nuclear deterrence and arms control. Today, it is also renowned for its annual Military Balance assessment of countries’ armed forces and for its high-powered security summits, including the Shangri-La Dialogue.

 

 

 

Page 207

On Martha Nussbaum’s ideas see interview with her on the You Tube at:

Conversations with history: September 14th 2006 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qy3YTzYjut4

 

See also; The Human Development and Capability Association

http://www.capabilityapproach.com/index.php

 

and its journal
Journal of Human Development and Capabilities A Multi-Disciplinary Journal for People-Centered Development


Here is a summary of Martha Nussbaum’s Central Human Functional Capabilities.

 

  1. Being able to live to the end of a human life of normal length; not dying prematurely or before one’s life is so reduced as to be not worth living
  2. Bodily Health and Integrity. Being able to have good health, including reproductive health; being adequately nourished; being able to have adequate shelter
  3. Bodily Integrity. Being able to move freely from place to place; being able to be secure against violent assault, including sexual assault, marital rape, and domestic violence; having opportunities for sexual satisfaction and for choice in matters of reproduction.
  4. Senses, imagination, thought. Being able to use the senses; being able to imagine, to think, and to reason – and to do these things in a “truly human” way, a way informed and cultivated by an adequate education, including, but by no means limited to, literacy and basic mathematical and scientific training; being able to use imagination and thought in connection with experiencing and producing expressive works and events of one’s own choice (religious, literary, musical etc.); being able to use one’s mind in ways protected by guarantees of freedom of expression wit respect to both political and artistic speech and freedom of religious exercise; being able to have pleasurable experiences and to avoid nonbeneficial pain
  5. Being able to have attachments to things and persons outside ourselves; being able to love those who love and care for us; being able to grieve at their absence; in general being able to love, to grieve, to experience longing, gratitude, and justified anger; not having one’s emotional developing blighted by fear or anxiety. (Supporting this capability means supporting forms of human association that can be shown to be crucial in their development.
  6. Practical reason. Being able to form a conception of the good and to engage in critical reflection about the planning of one’s own life. (This entails protection for the liberty of conscience.)
  7. (a) Being able to live for and in relation to others, to recognize and show concern for other human beings, to engage in various forms of social interaction; being able to imagine the situation of another and to have compassion for the situation; having the capability for both justice and friendship. (Protecting this capability means, once again, protecting institutions that constitute such forms of affiliation, and also protecting institutions that constitute such forms of affiliation, and also protecting the freedoms of assembly and political speech.) (b) Having the social bases of self-respect and nonhumiliation; being able to be treated as a dignified being whose worth is equal to that of others. (This entails provisions of nondiscrimination.)
  8. Other species. Being able to live with concern for and in relation to animals, plants, and the world of nature
  9. Being able to laugh, to play, to enjoy recreational activities.
  10. Control over one’s environment. (a) Political: being able to participate effectively in political choices that govern one’s life; having the rights of political participation, free speech, and freedom of association (b) Material: being able to hold property (both land and movable goods); having the right to seek employment on an equal basis with others; having the freedom from unwarranted search and seizure. In work, being able to work as a human being, exercising practical reason and entering into meaningful relationships of mutual recognition with other workers.

From Martha Nussbaum Sex and Social Justice. 1999: 41-2; but it can be found everywhere in her work (eg Frontiers of Justice); and most recently in Creating Capabilities (2011) and Development and Change, Forum 2006 Vol 37, No 6 November 2006 p1325-7, where she also comments on problems with the list – page 1315.

 

The Oxfam Recommendations for Change:

See on line PDF: January 2016 Oxfam – An Economy for the 1%

 

  1. Pay workers a living wage and close the gap with executive rewards: by increasing minimum wages towards living wages; with transparency on pay ratios; and protecting workers’ rights to unionize and strike.
  2. Promote women’s economic equality and women’s rights: by providing compensation for unpaid care; ending the gender pay gap; promoting equal inheritance and land rights for women; and improving data collection to assess how women and girls are affected by economic policy.
  3. Keep the influence of powerful elites in check: by building mandatory public lobby registries and stronger rules on conflict of interest; ensuring that good-quality information on administrative and budget processes is made public and is free and easily accessible; reforming the regulatory environment, particularly around transparency in government; separating business from campaign financing; and introducing measures to close revolving doors between big business and government.
  4. Change the global system for R&D and the pricing of medicines so that everyone has access to appropriate and affordable medicines: by negotiating a new global R&D treaty; increasing investment in medicines, including in affordable generics; and excluding intellectual property rules from trade agreements. Financing R&D must be delinked from the pricing of medicines in order to break companies’ monopolies, ensuring proper financing of R&D for needed therapy and affordability of resulting products.
  5. Share the tax burden fairly to level the playing field: by shifting the tax burden away from labour and consumption and towards wealth, capital and income from these assets; increasing transparency on tax incentives; and introducing national wealth taxes.
  6. Use progressive public spending to tackle inequality: by prioritizing policies, practice and spending that increase financing for free public health and education to fight poverty and inequality at a national level. Refrain from implementing unproven and unworkable market reforms to public health and education systems, and expand public sector rather than private sector delivery of essential services.

 

 

 


CHAPTER EIGHT

VISIONS: CREATING SOCIOLOGICAL HOPE

P212 – 236

 

 

 

Page 212

The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it.

Karl Marx, Theses on Feuerbach, 1845,Thesis 11 and engraved upon his tomb

See all the Theses here:

https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/theses/theses.htm

 

Page 213- 4

Ernest Bloch’s three volumes on The Principle of Hope (written at the end of the holocaust) shows how throughout history all societies have needed a sense of hope.

You can find an introduction to it at:

https://www.marxists.org/archive/bloch/hope/introduction.htm

 

page 213: Think on: Sociology and utopia

For discussions on sociological utopias, see:

Eric Ohlin Wright (1947-)

http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~wright/RealUtopias.htm

http://understandingsociety.blogspot.co.uk/2010/06/real-utopias.html

 

and see him ‘live’ on the You Tube:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RzqOc-gkI-o

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X-KcHtYCtTs

 

See a discussion on the idea of Sociological Utopias and the Centre for the Utopian Studies by Ruth Levitas

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bYt_L6e9Zdg

 

Look also at the Ralahine Centre for Utopian Studies and their work

http://ulsites.ul.ie/ralahinecentre/

 

There is also a journal called Utopian Studies : see

http://www.psupress.org/journals/jnls_utopian_studies.html

 

See also:

The debate about utopias from a sociological perspective[1]

Richard Kilminster Human Figurations

Volume 3Issue 2, June 2014

http://www.norberteliasfoundation.nl/docs/pdf/Utopias.pdf

 

Page 216

For other answers to the question of What sociologists do? see

http://www.topuniversities.com/student-info/careers-advice/what-can-you-do-sociology-degree

http://sociology.ucdavis.edu/undergraduate-program/career-options

 

The British Sociological Association’s Response:
http://www.britsoc.co.uk/what-is-sociology/what-do-sociologists-do.aspx

 

Page 219

An interesting article to introduce to to the idea of Communication ethics and dialogue in sociology is:

http://www.communicationcache.com/uploads/1/0/8/8/10887248/a_conversation_about_communication_ethics_with_ronald_c._arnett.pdf

Take a look at the book:

Communication, ethics, literacy by Ronald C Arnett and others. Sage 2009

 

On Bakhtin

 

The key writer and philosopher on dialogue is M. Bakhtin. See his

Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays (1982: University of Texas Press) by M.M. Bakhtin, Michael Holquist, and Caryl Emerson

Rabelais and His World by M.M. Bakhtin and Helene Iswolsky ( 1984) Indiana University Press

For an introduction to his work see:

http://www.isfp.co.uk/russian_thinkers/mikhail_bakhtin.html

http://www.iep.utm.edu/bakhtin/

 

Page 219

Deborah Tannen is prolific. Most of her books are about the misunderstandings between men and women. A classic is : The Argument Culture: Changing the Way We Argue and Debate

See Deborah Tannen http://www.deborahtannen.com/

 

Page 221

On Citizenship:

The classic sociological statement on Citizenship is by T.H.Marshall and can be found at:

http://www.jura.uni-bielefeld.de/lehrstuehle/davy/wustldata/1950_Marshall_Citzenship_and_Social_Class_OCR.pdf

 

On TH Marshall see: Citizenship Today: Contemporary Relevance of T.H. Marshall by Martin Bulmer & Anthony Rees ( University of Southampton) 1996: Routledge

 

For recent debates, see the journal Citizenship Studies

http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ccst20#.VsnJ_yhQ0uI

 

Page 222 The Circle of Sociological Life

Note that I have rethought this a little since the first edition of the book. This is a different circle, reorganized and separating out public from ‘pop’ular sociology, hence adding a new phase.

Compare p192 1st edition, with p222 second edition.

Ideas keep moving on!

 

 

Page 222 – 3. Public Sociology

The core paper on Public Sociology by Burawoy can be downloaded from:
http://burawoy.berkeley.edu/Public%20Sociology,%20Live/Burawoy.pdf

And watched on:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8NxvPKGtkUQ

 

Michael Burawoy. A lot of his work can be accessed via his web site at:

http://burawoy.berkeley.edu/

 

For videos on Public Sociology, see:

http://burawoy.berkeley.edu/PS.Webpage/ps.videos.htm

 

On Margaret Archer and the Vatican

https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/people/qa-with-margaret-archer/2013413.article

 

 

Page 223

Studying sociology in professional courses will bring its own text books like Elaine Denny and Sarah Earle’s Sociology for Nurses (2016 3rd ed) or Anne Llewlynn & Lorraine Agu’s Sociology for Social Workers (2014, 2nd ed).

 

Page 224 Popular Sociology

For current listings of so called popular books in sociology see
‘Sociology Best Sellers’ – with a strong US bias:

https://contexts.org/articles/a-fresh-look-at-sociology-bestsellers/
For access to Laurie Taylor’s programme (which is also accessible on pod casts) , search:

Laurie Taylor   Thinking allowed:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006qy05

 

On Owen Jones. see

http://www.theguardian.com/profile/owen-jones

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCSYCo8uRGF39qDCxF870K5Q
On Naomi Klein, see

http://www.naomiklein.org/main
And Naomi Klein and Owen Jones together at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dhJA7HCPHDA

 

On Grayson Perry on identity The Channel Four programmes Who Are You?see

http://www.channel4.com/programmes/grayson-perry-who-are-you

 

On Antony Gormley on The Body, see

http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2004/apr/22/guesteditors3

 

On Sebastio Salagundi’s The Salt of the Earth (2014) dir Juliana Salagundi, Wim Wenders
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt3674140/

For a Trailer: see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OivMlWXtWpY

And his lecture on the The Drama of Photography

(A TED Lecture: Feb 2-13)

https://www.ted.com/talks/sebastiao_salgado_the_silent_drama_of_photography?language=en

 

 

See Pierre Bourdieu at work as a public intellectual, see …..

You Tube: Sociology as a Martial Art

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Csbu08SqAuc

(but it is in French with translation)

 

 

Page 224
The term ‘Moral Imagination’ was probably first used by the literary critic Lionel Trilling; and is certainly the title of a book by Getrude Himmelfarb (1907).

 

Page 225 -6

On the Value Debate, see For Max Weber’s classic texts: -6 http://www.ne.jp/asahi/moriyuki/abukuma/weber_texts.html

Look especially at: Objectivity in social science, Science as a vocation :Politics as a vocation. All downloadable.

 

Page 228

See my discussion on the Common Ground in
Ken Plummer Intimate Citizenship 2003 : Washington Chapter 7

Cosmopolitan Sexualities

 

A Classic illustration of this The Golden Rule

Ancient Egyptian: Eloquent Peasant, 109 – 110

Baha’i Faith: Gleanings

Buddhism: Udana-Varga 5.1, Samyutta Nikaya v.353, Sutta Nipata 705

Christianity: Bible Matthew 7.12, Matthew 22.36-40, Leviticus 19.18

Confucianism: Analects 15.23, Mencius VII.A.4

Hinduism: Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva 113.8, Mahabharata 5:1517

Humanism: British Humanist Society

Native American Spirituality: The Great Law of Peace, Black Elk, Pima proverb

Islam: Forty Hadith of an-Nawawi 13

ainism: Acarangasutra 5.101-2, Sutrakritanga 1.11.33

Judaism: Leviticus 19.18, Shabbat 31a

Shinto:Ko-ji-ki Hachiman Kasuga

Sikhism: Guru Granth Sahib, pg. 1299

Sufism: Javad Nurbakhsh

Taoism: T’ai Shang Kan Ying P’ien, 213-218

Unitarianism: Unitarian principle

Wicca: Wiccan Rede

Yoruba: Yoruba Proverb (Nigeria)

Zoroastrianism: Shayast-na-Shayast 13.29

See on line: http://www.religioustolerance.org/reciproc.htm

 

 

Page 228 -9

Here is a short list of works to help you take some of these ideas further.

 

On Care
You Tube: See some speakers on care:

Nel Noddings : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ns-XreddOis

Joan Tronto Caring Democracy: Markets, Equality and Justice NYU Press 2013

And see her on line at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H-utAjZ_obc

 

Reading:
Joan Tronto   Caring Democracy
Marian Barnes Care in Everyday Life

Michael D.Fine A Caring Society? Care and the Dilemmas of Human Service in the Human Service Industry in the 21st Century 2007 Palgrave

Natan Sznaider The Compassionate Temperament: care and Cruelty in Modern Society 2001 Rowman and Littlefield

Nial Scott & Jonathan Seglow Altruism 2007 Open University McGraw Hill

Ian Wilkinson Suffering: A Sociological Introduction 2005 Polity Press

 

On Freedom. Equality and Justice, see

Michael Sandel’s famous seminar /lecture discussions on the You Tube at:

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL30C13C91CFFEFEA6

 

On Justice

Amartya Sen                         The Idea of Justice (2009) Allen Lane.

Michael Sandel                                  Justice: What’s the right thing to do? (2007/2009) Penguin
Iris Marion Young               Justice and the politics of difference (1990) Princeton

Nancy Fraser                                    ‘From Redistribution to Recognition: Dilemmas of Justice in a ‘Post-socialist’ Age’.           in Nancy Fraser. Justice Interruptus (1997: Chapter 1)
————                               The Scales of Justice

Sam Harris                            The Moral Landscape:How Science Can Determine Human Values (2011) Bantham.

Lukes, Steven                                   Moral Relativism 2008 Profile

Peter Singer                          Writings on an Ethical Life (2000) Harper Collins
Ronld Dworkin                                Justice for Hedgehogs (2011)

 

 

On Dialogue

Taylor, Charles et al                      Multiculturalism: Examining the politics of recognition (1994) Princeton

Frank, Arthur                                   Letting Stories Breathe: A Socio-Narratology (2010)

Bakhtin, Michel                                 The Dialogic Imagination
Habermas, Jurgen              Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action (1992) Polity

Arnett, Ronald C. et al                    Communication Ethics, Literacy: Dialogue & Difference (2009) Sage
Benhabib, Seyla                               The Claims of Culture: Equality and diversity in the global era (2002)

Zygmunt Bauman               Postmodern Ethics (1999) Blackwell

Lois McNay                           Against Recognition (2008) Polity

Kwame Anthony Appiah   The Ethics of Identity (2007) Princeton

 

Page 229

On Cosmopolitanism

What is Cosmopolitanism?
For the Ghanian-American philosopher Kwame Anthony Appiah, in his book Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a world of Strangers ( 2006)) it is a ‘universal concern and respect for legitimate difference’ (Appiah,2006:xv). For the Swedish anthropologist Ulf Hannerz (in Ulf Hannerz   Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places.( 1996) it is ‘a mode of managing meaning’ ‘ a willingness to engage with the other’. ‘It entails an intellectual and aesthetic openness toward divergent cultural experiences, a search for contrasts rather than uniformity. ……(It is) a state of readiness: an ability to make one’s way into other cultures, through listening, looking, intuiting and reflecting (Hannerz: 1996: p103). For the German sociologist Ulrich Beck (who is at the forefront of sociological writers in this field) we have arrived at the ‘cosmopolitan moment’ as an emergent and distinctive feature of modernity: ‘the human condition has itself become cosmopolitan’. We live with the ideas that ‘local, national, ethnic, religious and cosmopolitan cultures and traditions interpenetrate, interconnect and intermingle – cosmopolitanism without provincialism is empty, provincialism without cosmopolitanism is blind’ (Beck Cosmopolitan Vision 2006:p7). For the British sociologist, Robert Fine, cosmopolitanism is bound up deeply with international law and human rights. Indeed, cosmopolitanism is both ‘a determinate social form’ which ‘reconfigures’ a whole sphere of (potentially contradictory) rights as well as being a ‘form of consciousness that involves an understanding of the concept of cosmopolitanism and a capacity to develop the concept in imaginative and reflexive’. He sees it as both outlook (a way of seeing the world) and a condition ( an existing form of the world) (In Cosmopolitanism p 111, 134.) Finally, for the influential US feminist philosopher Martha Nussbaum, it raises the issue of a ‘decent world culture’ and a world moral community:

 

If our world is to be a decent world in the future, we must acknowledge right now that we are citizens of one interdependent world, held together by mutual fellowship as well as the pursuit of mutual advantage, by compassion as well as self interest, by a love of human dignity, in all people, even when there is nothing to gain from cooperating with them. Or rather even when we have to gain the biggest thing of all: participation in a just and morally decent world. Martha Nussbaum Frontiers of Justice 2006: p324

 

On Human development and Human Flourishing

Severine Deneulin with Lial Shahini eds An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach. 2009 Earthscan

On Martha Nussbaum and Capabilties:

Books

  • Martha Nussbaum (2011), Creating Capabilities; The Human Development Approach. Harvard University Press.
  • Séverine Deneulin with Lila Shahani (eds) (2009), An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach, available online at ca/en/ev-143029-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
  • Sakiko Fukuda-Parr and Shiv Kumar (eds) (2009), Handbook in Human Development, Delhi: Oxford University Press.
  • Amartya Sen (2009), The Idea of Justice, London: Allen Lane
  • Sabina Alkire (2002), Valuing Freedoms, Oxford University Press
  • Martha Nussbaum (2000), Women and Human Development, Cambridge University Press
  • Amartya Sen (1999), Development as Freedom, Oxford University Press
  • Amartya Sen (1992), Inequality Re-examined, Oxford University Press

Introductory articles

  • Ingrid Robeyns  (2011), “The Capability Approach”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/capability-approach.
  • Ingrid Robeyns (2005), “The Capability Approach: A Theoretical Survey”, Journal of Human Development 6(1): 93–114.
  • Sabina Alkire (2005), “Why the Capability Approach”, Journal of Human Development 6(1): 115–33.
  • Martha Nussbaum (2003) “Capabilities as Fundamental Entitlements: Sen and Social Justice”, Feminist Economics 9 (2–3): 33–59.
  • Sabina Alkire (2002), “Dimensions of Human Development”, World Development 30 (2), 181–205.
  • Amartya Sen (1993),” Capability and Well-Being”, in M. Nussbaum and A. Sen (eds.) The Quality of Life, Oxford Clarendon Press, pp. 30–53.
  • Martha Nussbaum (1993), “Non-Relative Virtues: An Aristotelian Approach”, in M. Nussbaum and A. Sen (eds) The Quality of Life, Oxford Clarendon Press, pp. 242–69.
  • Amartya Sen (1989), “Development as Capability Expansion”, Journal of Development Planning 19: 41–58, reprinted in: Sakiko Fukuda-Parr and A.K. Shiva Kumar (eds.) (2003), Readings in Human Development, Oxford University Press, pp. 3–16
  • Amartya Sen (1988), “The Concept of Development”, in Behram and Strinivasan (eds.) Handbooks of Development Economics. Elsevier: North-Holland, pp. 3–23.

 

There are also web sites that provide entrances:

Web Sites on Humanism, Human Flourishing and Common Grounds

Human Development and Capabilities Association (HDCA)

“is a global community of academics and practitioners that seeks to build an intellectual community around the ideas of human development and the capability approach, and relate these ideas to the policy arena.  The association promotes research within many disciplines, ranging from economics to philosophy, development studies, health, education, law, government, sociology, and more. Our members live in over 70 countries worldwide

https://hd-ca.org/

Search for Common Ground: Understanding differences, working on commonalities

“Founded in 1982, Search for Common Ground works to transform the way the world deals with conflict – away from adversarial approaches and towards collaborative problem solving. We work with local partners to find culturally appropriate means to strengthen societies’ capacity to deal with conflicts constructively: to understand the differences and act on the commonalities. Using innovative tools and working at different levels of society, we engage in pragmatic long-term processes of conflict transformation. Our toolbox includes media production – radio, TV, film and print – mediation and facilitation, training, community organizing, sports, theater and music. We promote both individual and institutional change and are committed to measuring the results of our work and increase our effectiveness through monitoring and evaluation. We currently work in 26 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East.”

http://www.sfcg.org/sfcg/sfcg_intro.html

 

On Rights and Dignity

Human Rights

Fagan, Andrew                   The Atlas of Human Rights 2010 Myriad

Morris, Lydia ed                  Rights: Sociological Perspectives 2006 Routledge

Freeman, Michael               Human Rights 2002 Polity

Ishay, M.R. (2004)                The History of Human Rights: From ancient times to the globalization era, California: California University Press

Ishay, Micheline R ed                     The Human Rights Reader ( 2nd ed 2007 Routledge)

Lukes, Steven                                   ‘Five Fables About Human Rights’ in On Human Rights ed Stephen Shute and Susan Huxley (1993: Oxford)

Kay Schafer and Sidonie Smith      Human rights and Narrated Lives: The ethics of recognition (2004) Palgrave

Ken Plummer                                   Intimate Citizenship: Private Decisions and Public Dialogues (2003)Washington

 

 

Page 230

Charles Taylor sees the social imaginary as ‘the ways people imagine their social existence, how they fit together with others, how things go on between them and their fellows, the expectations that are normally met, and the deep normative notions and images that underlies these expectations” (2003: p23).

Charles Taylor Modern Social Imaginaries 2003, Duke
http://www.cjsonline.ca/reviews/socialimaginaries.html
http://ant.sagepub.com/content/6/3/322.abstract
John Thompson says the imagnary is the “The creative and symbolic dimensions of the social world through which people live their collective images of life” (Studies in the Theory of Ideology, 1984, page 6).

 

The idea derives from Cornelius Castoriades, 1975, The Imaginary Institution of Society. 1975. It enables us to see how people can imagine their lives as a whole. The idea can work to help clarify boundaries and horizons, limits and possibilities. Utopian imaginaries might lead to the emancipation of individuals from entrenched institutions?

 

There is a Centre for ‘Imaginaries of the Future’ : see

https://imaginariesofthefuture.wordpress.com/

 

 

Page 232

 

Suffering

See Iain Wilkinson http://www.kent.ac.uk/scarr/events/finalpapers/wilkinson.pdf

http://www.medicalsociologyonline.org/oldsite/archives/issue11/probsuf.html

 

Good lives

See Lisa MacFarquhar Strangers Drowning: Voyages to the Brink of Moral Extremity

See also my thoughts on this book:

https://kenplummer.com/2016/01/14/a-book-to-start-the-year-with/

It is the story of ‘extreme do – gooders’, obsessed altruists who push their lives to ‘moral extremity’, wanting above all to solve the world’s problems in a directly practical way – and to be a good person. They shun worlds of comfort, self indulgence and money, and engage with an extreme ethical commitment that means they must do good above all else. They show little interest in anything other than maximising their behaviour to have a good impact on the world. This ‘driveness’ largely come out of childhood experiences, and often religion. They lack the ability which most (?) of us seem to have to shut out the unbearable sufferings of the world- so we can just get on with our own life! Yet whilst these people face many difficulties, they are sort of happy. I wondered as I read the book if this was perhaps the start of a new field of enquiry: the sociology of ‘goodness’?

Larissa MacFarguahar is a journalist at the New Yorker and her book constructs intriguing third person accounts throughout – bringing her seemingly extraordinary people alive in their complexity; and at the same time she weaves through the book a much wider reading of the philosophers, social scientists, self help advocates and novelists who have been critical of such a stance of the world. It all makes for compelling reading.

Let me sample some of the key unusual and maybe uncommon people who tell their stories in this book. Here is Aaron who devotes his life to animal’s rights and has done a great deal to reduce the sufferings of chickens in the world. Here is Dorothy originally a nurse and now in her mid-80s, who has devoted her life to women’s health and midwifery in Mulukuku, Nicaragua. Her former husband, Charles, was impressed by Ghandi and had devoted his life to peace protests. (He also devised a scheme called the World Equity Budget (WEB), which allowed him to calculate, and live on, his fair share of the world’s wealth: $12,000 a year). We meet a couple, Sue and Hector, who adopt some 20 children, many with profound disabilities and troubled lives. They face one problem after another, but have no reservations at all about doing this. There’s Baba, a risk taker if ever there was one, who found a leper colony in India (and tests his son’s courage by sending him to fetch water at a well where a tiger has been heard roaring. And then there is Kimberley, a devoted church goer, who ends up as a missionary in Mozambique. She donates a kidney to a stranger, even as her act inspires hostility from others. And then there is the Buddhist priest in Japan who counsels people who want to commit suicide only to have them turn on him in his hour of need.

The book takes its title Strangers Drowning from Peter Singer’s ideas on ‘effective giving’, and charity as a purely rationalistic, utilitarian act. Human beings are really morally required to reduce the suffering of others in the most effective ways they can. Hence: if you saw two groups of people drowning – your mother, and two other people, who would you save? Saving your mother has less value than two other people. For me this is a non-starter as an ethical puzzle: I would save my mother. But not so for Singer – and most of the people in this book- for whom a refined moral calculus depends upon a highly rationalized counting system.

Of course, the big issue is whether will go along with this long standing tradition of rational utilitarianism, developed by Jeremy Bentham; and Peter Singer has to be the major and most well known of modern proponents. But this view raises a lot of problems. To start with, what might the world look like if everybody did these extremes acts for others, forsaking their own? As MacFarquhar puts it so pointedly: What would the world look like is everyone thought like a do gooder? (p300). This world would be a very different place from the one we live in now. Indeed it is hard to imagine. In part this is because the human problems of suffering and poverty etc would no longer be here; if the problem is solved , what is to be done? And partly because the very thing we take to be humanity – the muddled, vulnerable, frail little animal – would be no more. Suffering and dealing with problems is actually a key feature of our very humanity. A world where everything gets solved in one way only would not be a very human world.

 

Page 233

Life in a Day

https://www.youtube.com/user/lifeinaday

 

Page 234 : Inspirations? New Approaches? Looking Ahead?
And so to end with: here are some writings, talks and ideas to get you talking about where sociology is heading…..

 

John Holmwood Re-Imagining Sociology after the public University

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HiBh-iBpfs8

Universities in Crisis: Markets V Publics

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=COWrlYyeqys

 

Max Haiven Crises of Imagination and Crises of Power

Max Haiven and Alex Khasnabish The Radical Imagination (2014)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jsCUa5IfrX8

 

David Beer Punk Sociology (2014) Palgrave

See: http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2014/03/30/book-review-punk-sociology/

https://simplysociology.wordpress.com/2014/01/28/a-review-of-punk-sociology/

 

David Bollier   Think like a commoner: A short introduction to the life of the Commons (2014)

To hear what the idea of the commons see, click

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0hqrPSR51bw

 

Listen to the sociologist Roberto Unger who sets an important image of what sociology could become:

listen to: http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2014/01/roberto-mangabeira-unger-what-is-wrong-with-the-social-sciences-today/

His critique is mainly of economics but he argues it applies to all the social sciences.
Numbers

 

 

 

Page 169
Criminal statistics

A useful book to help you understand criminal statistics is

The Mismeasure of Crime by Clayton Mosher et al: see

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Mismeasure-Crime-Clayton-Mosher/dp/1412981816/ref=sr_1_7?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1456154174&sr=1-7&keywords=Critical+criminal+statistics

 

On Rape Statistics, see

Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault by Candace Kruttschnitt, William D. Kalsbeek, and Carol C. House, Editors

http://www.nap.edu/catalog/18605/estimating-the-incidence-of-rape-and-sexual-assault

 

 

Page 170 : Narrative

 

Narratives and stories are among the most powerful instruments for
ordering human experience. Narrative can be expressed in oral or
written language, still or moving pictures, or a mixture of these media.
It is present in myths, legends, fables, tales, short stories, epics,
history, tragedy, drama, comedy, pantomime, paintings, stained glass
windows, movies, local news, and conversation. In its almost infinite
variety of forms, it is present at all times, in all places, and in all
societies. Indeed, narrative starts with the very history of mankind….”
(Barthes, 1975).

 

We tell ourselves stories in order to live

Joan Didion, title of her collected stories.

 

Stories animate human life: that is their work.

Arthur W.Frank   Letting Stories Breathe

 

Narrative makes the earth habitable for human beings” Frank, again: p46

 

We have each of us, a life story, an inner narrative – whose continuity, whose sense is our lives…. A man needs such a narrative, a continuous inner narrative to maintain his identity…

Oliver Sachs opening to The man who mistook his wife for a hat

 

.. There is no best way to tell a story about society. Many genres, many methods, many formats – they can all do the trick. Instead of ideal ways to do it, the world gives us possibilities among which we choose. Every way of telling the story of a society does some of the job superbly but other parts not so well……

Howard S Becker     Telling About Society 2007 : 285

 

“All sorrows can be born if you put them in a story or tell a story about them….” Hannah Arendt: The Human Condition

 

This is what fools people: a man is always a teller of tales, he lives surrounded by his stories and the stories of others, he sees everything that happens to him through them; and he tries to live his life as if he were (recounting it) telling a story.

Jean Paul Sartre Nausea

 

Our life is essentially a set of stories we tell ourselves about our past, present and future… we ‘story’ our lives…in fact, restorying continually goes on within us

G.M. Kenyon and L.W. Randall Restorying Our Lives

 

Our society has become a recited society, in three senses: it is defined by stories (Recits, the fables constituted by our advertising and informational media) by citations of stories, and by the interminable recitation of stories.

Michel de Certeau The Practice of Everyday Life, 1984 p186

 

The significance of narrative in sociology cannot be understimated. We are the narrating animal, telling stories in order to live. As Roland Barthes famously remarked:

 

“Narratives and stories are among the most powerful instruments for ordering human experience. Narrative can be expressed in oral or written language, still or moving pictures, or a mixture of these media. It is present in myths, legends, fables, tales, short stories, epics, history, tragedy, drama, comedy, pantomime, paintings, stained glass windows, movies, local news, and conversation. In its almost infinite variety of forms, it is present at all times, in all places, and in all societies. Indeed, narrative starts with the very history of mankind “ ( Barthes, 1975).

 

Here are some of the kinds of descriptions or narratives that sociologists encounter and indeed make themselves:

 

  1. Common sense narratives- this involves ‘just telling it as it is’. Don’t worry too much about it. Listen to what people say and report it as well as you can.
  2. Statistical narratives – counting it when you can. Try and get to the complexities by counting and measuring. Then you should be able to make generalisations across a host of cases. Through statistics – giving us broad features of who does what where when and maybe why?
  3. Idiographic narrative – the unique tale. Get close to one account of the world, really try and understand it. Capture the in depth complexity in your writing.
  4. Thematic narratives – looking at substance for core themes. Take a number of cases and try to tease out common threads ands themes into your own account. Here you may want to lookout for Formal and structural narratives – finding underlying pattern
  5. Hermeneutic circle narratives ?????
  6. Dialogic and performative narratives – probing self and communication seriously

 

We can gain these narratives:
Through ethnography – giving us an inner sense of the culture, of what is going on here?
Through biographies – giving us a feel of how lives are lived and experience this?
Through documents – giving us a natural glimpse of what is going on – in court records, films, reports
Through visuals – giving us images through which we can see what is going on

 

In a simple way- and following the highly influential anthropologist Clifford Gerrtz- we might want to distinguish between descriptions which are thin, and others which are thick or deep……

 

And ponder the issue of deep description (Geertz).
http://hypergeertz.jku.at/GeertzTexts/Thick_Description.htm

 

Geertz, Clifford. “Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture”. In The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. (New York: Basic Books, 1973) 3-30.

See: http://hypergeertz.jku.at/GeertzTexts/Thick_Description.htm

 

Page 170

 

The Roshomon Effect

 

This is a term based on the famous Japanese film. Akira Kurosawa’s world renowned film, Rashomon, (1950) set in 12th century feudal Japan, tells the story of a woman raped and her samurai husband murdered by a notorious bandit Tajomaru who is later captured and put on trial. The story is then told – through various cunning devices – from the perspectives of four different characters – the bandit, the woman, the samurai – and a passing by wood cutter. All the stories are mutually contradictory and the film poses a challenge about which of the perspectives is true.

See: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0042876/

 

Page 172-3: Human Social Life as perspectival, as a point of view

 

In many ways this is well known and sociologists have to take it seriously. As the literary critic Kenneth Burke has famously put it: “every way of seeing is also a way of not seeing” (1935:70); that “every insight contains its own special kind of blindness” (1984:41). It is even present in a famous childhood poem (by the American poet John Godfrey Saxe) which tells the tale of six blind (but learned) men from Indostan who describe their physical observations of an elephant. Blindfolded, eah is asked to ffeel the epelphadn and describe what they find; and each describe it differently- as ‘very like a wall’,as ‘ a snake’, as ‘a spear’,as ’ a tree’,as ‘a fan’ and even as a ‘rope’: ‘ each was partly in the right , and all were in the wrong’:

 

So oft in theologic wars,
The disputants, I ween,
Rail on in utter ignorance
Of what each other mean,
And prate about an Elephant
Not one of them has seen!

 

 

 

See: http://www.wordinfo.info/words/index/info/view_unit/1/?letter=B&spage=3

 

In both the Tale of the Elephant and the tale of Rasomon, we see the problem of competing perspectives circling around the truth. And these are fables to remember as we study society, because society is a whirling stream of different perspectives and partial truths, stories told from different angles and different perspectives. The sociologist has to recognise this not only in what is being studied, but also in what he or she subsequently writes – the sociologists tales which we can be sure will be challenged by other perspectives in time, both within sociology and outside of. This is the deeply problematic nature of social reality and its varying perspectives……..

 

Both of these accounts though leave something missing. There is a true elephant and somebody did rape and murder! So while we do need to recognise the one sided nature of perspectives for sure, we also must develop a wider account that gets closert to the truth. Ultimately the more perspectives we can develop, the more accurate our portrait may be. We may not be able to tell the whole story, but some stories come much nearer to it than others……

 

 

Page 174

 

Verstehen is a method advocated by Max Weber to highlight the “understanding” and “interpretation” of meaning and human activities. It tries to understand people on their own terms and from their own point-of-view.

 

Hermeneutics refers generally to the ways in which study the interpretive process ( it was originally concerned with the interpretation of written texts). – how do people go about making sense (translating) and interpreting the world around them…Such underatanding has a cucruclar character – each part of an understanding links to other parts.

 

“””The hermeneutic circle describes the process of understanding a text hermeneutically. It refers to the idea that one’s understanding of the text as a whole is established by reference to the individual parts and one’s understanding of each individual part by reference to the whole. Neither the whole text nor any individual part can be understood without reference to one another, and hence, it is a circle. However, this circular character of interpretation does not make it impossible to interpret a text, rather, it stresses that the meaning of text must be found within its cultural, historical, and literary context.”””WIKI   (Habermas)

More WIKI…Jürgen Habermas considered his major achievement to be the development of the concept and theory of communicative reason or communicative rationality, which distinguishes itself from the rationalist tradition by locating rationality in structures of interpersonal linguistic communication rather than in the structure of either the cosmos or the knowing subject. This social theory advances the goals of human emancipation, while maintaining an inclusive universalist moral framework. This framework rests on the argument called universal pragmatics – that all speech acts have an inherent telos (the Greek word for “end”) — the goal of mutual understanding, and that human beings possess the communicative competence to bring about such understanding. Habermas built the framework out of the speech-act philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, J. L. Austin, and John Searle, the sociological theory of the interactional constitution of mind and self of George Herbert Mead, the theories of moral development of Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg, and the discourse ethics of his Heidelberg colleague Karl-Otto Apel.

He carried forward the traditions of Kant and the Enlightenment and of democratic socialism through his emphasis on the potential for transforming the world and arriving at a more humane, just, and egalitarian society through the realization of the human potential for reason, in part through discourse ethics. While Habermas conceded that the Enlightenment is an “unfinished project,” he argued it should be corrected and complemented, not discarded. In this he distanced himself from the Frankfurt School, criticizing it, as well as much of postmodernist thought, for excessive pessimism, misdirected radicalism and exaggerations.

Within sociology, Habermas’s major contribution was the development of a comprehensive theory of societal evolution and modernization focusing on the difference between communicative rationality and rationalization on the one hand and strategic/instrumental rationality and rationalization on the other. This included a critique from a communicative standpoint of the differentiation-based theory of social systems developed by Niklas Luhmann, a student of Talcott Parsons.

His defence of modernity and civil society has been a source of inspiration to others, and is considered a major philosophical alternative to the varieties of poststructuralism. He has also offered an influential analysis of late capitalism.

Habermas saw the rationalization, humanization, and democratization of society in terms of the institutionalization of the potential for rationality that is inherent in the communicative competence that is unique to the human species. Habermas believed communicative competence has developed through the course of evolution, but in contemporary society it is often suppressed or weakened by the way in which major domains of social life, such as the market, the state, and organizations, have been given over to or taken over by strategic/instrumental rationality, so that the logic of the system supplants that of the lifeworld.

Writing

See also the project: Writing Across Boundaries.

This is a project which gets various social scientists who have published quite a bit to reflect on the nature of their writing. It includes pieces by Howard Becker, Harvey Molotch, Marilyn Strathborn and Liz Stanley, myself and many others: see

http://www.dur.ac.uk/writingacrossboundaries

On this website you will also find resources relating to a variety of themes that engage writers in the social sciences. These include and Drafting and Plotting, the Data-Theory Relationship, Narrative, Rhetoric, and Representation and Hints and Tips on Writing

 

Some challenges to orthodox methodologies include: include Chela Sanoval’s Methodology of the Oppressed ( 2000), Les Back, The Art of Listening (2007), Norman Denzin The Qualitative Manifesto: A Call to Arms (2010). Kate Orton-Johnson et al (2013) ed Digital Sociology: Critical Perspectives ; Deborah Lupton, Digital Sociology,

 

Critical qualitative research

Norman Denzin                   The Qualitative Manifesto: A Call to Arms (2010) Left Coast Press

D.Soyini Madison     Critical Ethnography: Method, Ethics and Performance. (2005) Sage

Gayle Letherby                    Feminist Research in Theory and Practice (2003) OU Press

Dorothy Smith                     The Everyday World as Problematic (1988) Northeastern University Press

————                    Writing the Social (1998) Toronto

Marjorie de Vault     Liberating Methodology: Feminism and Research (1999) Temple

Michael Buroway et al         Global Ethnography: Forces, Connections and Imaginations in a Postmodern World (2000) California

Norman Denzin

and Yvonne Lincoln           The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research 3rd edition Sage (2007) (but other editions are worth looking at- they are different)

Linda T Smith           Decolonizing Methodologies Zed Books 1999

Norman K.Denzin &

Yvonna S.Lincoln&

Linda Tuhiwai Smith           Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies eds (2008) Sage

Judith Butler                          Giving a Stance of Oneself (2005) Fordham University

Kath Browne et al    Queer Methods and Methodologies (2010) Ashgate

 

 

 


CHAPTER SEVEN

SUFFERING INEQUALITIES: P180 – 211

 

 

Page 180-1

 

To start with listen to:

Danny Dorling on Inequalities

http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2012/05/danny-dorling-on-inequality/

 

and a quick listing? Try

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwIEZDMDBo4

 

Page 180

 

Here is the full version of ‘ Man’s inhumanity to man makes countless thousands mourn! ‘ By Robert Burns: Man Was Made To Mourn: A Dirge 1784
http://www.robertburns.org/works/55.shtml

1784

Type: Dirge

When chill November’s surly blast
Made fields and forests bare,
One ev’ning, as I wander’d forth
Along the banks of Ayr,
I spied a man, whose aged step
Seem’d weary, worn with care;
His face furrow’d o’er with years,
And hoary was his hair.”Young stranger, whither wand’rest thou?”
Began the rev’rend sage;
“Does thirst of wealth thy step constrain,
Or youthful pleasure’s rage?
Or haply, prest with cares and woes,
Too soon thou hast began
To wander forth, with me to mourn
The miseries of man.”The sun that overhangs yon moors,
Out-spreading far and wide,
Where hundreds labour to support
A haughty lordling’s pride;-
I’ve seen yon weary winter-sun
Twice forty times return;
And ev’ry time has added proofs,
That man was made to mourn.”O man! while in thy early years,
How prodigal of time!
Mis-spending all thy precious hours-
Thy glorious, youthful prime!
Alternate follies take the sway;
Licentious passions burn;
Which tenfold force gives Nature’s law.
That man was made to mourn.”Look not alone on youthful prime,
Or manhood’s active might;
Man then is useful to his kind,
Supported in his right:
But see him on the edge of life,
With cares and sorrows worn;
Then Age and Want-oh! ill-match’d pair-
Shew man was made to mourn.

“A few seem favourites of fate,
In pleasure’s lap carest;
Yet, think not all the rich and great
Are likewise truly blest:
But oh! what crowds in ev’ry land,
All wretched and forlorn,
Thro’ weary life this lesson learn,
That man was made to mourn.

“Many and sharp the num’rous ills
Inwoven with our frame!
More pointed still we make ourselves,
Regret, remorse, and shame!
And man, whose heav’n-erected face
The smiles of love adorn, –
Man’s inhumanity to man
Makes countless thousands mourn!

“See yonder poor, o’erlabour’d wight,
So abject, mean, and vile,
Who begs a brother of the earth
To give him leave to toil;
And see his lordly fellow-worm
The poor petition spurn,
Unmindful, tho’ a weeping wife
And helpless offspring mourn.

“If I’m design’d yon lordling’s slave,
By Nature’s law design’d,
Why was an independent wish
E’er planted in my mind?
If not, why am I subject to
His cruelty, or scorn?
Or why has man the will and pow’r
To make his fellow mourn?

“Yet, let not this too much, my son,
Disturb thy youthful breast:
This partial view of human-kind
Is surely not the last!
The poor, oppressed, honest man
Had never, sure, been born,
Had there not been some recompense
To comfort those that mourn!

“O Death! the poor man’s dearest friend,
The kindest and the best!
Welcome the hour my aged limbs
Are laid with thee at rest!
The great, the wealthy fear thy blow
From pomp and pleasure torn;
But, oh! a blest relief for those
That weary-laden mourn!”

 

Page 181

see Goran Therborn talking about inequalities at

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zvp2omouPNs

 

Page 182

As the Irish poet Louis McNeice beautifully put it: the world is ‘ crazier and more of it than we think, the drunkenness of things various’. Human worlds are lush with multiplicities and possibilities. See: http://www.thepoetryexchange.co.uk/uncategorized/snow-by-louis-macneice-2/

 

 

Page 183- 7

On the durability of inequalities, see Charles Tilly: Durable Inequality (1999) Berkeley: University of California Press. It’s blurb states:

“Charles Tilly, in this eloquent manifesto, presents a powerful new approach to the study of persistent social inequality. How, he asks, do long-lasting, systematic inequalities in life chances arise, and how do they come to distinguish members of different socially defined categories of persons? Exploring representative paired and unequal categories, such as male/female, black/white, and citizen/noncitizen, Tilly argues that the basic causes of these and similar inequalities greatly resemble one another. In contrast to contemporary analyses that explain inequality case by case, this account is one of process. Categorical distinctions arise, Tilly says, because they offer a solution to pressing organizational problems. Whatever the “organization” is–as small as a household or as large as a government–the resulting relationship of inequality persists because parties on both sides of the categorical divide come to depend on that solution, despite its drawbacks. Tilly illustrates the social mechanisms that create and maintain paired and unequal categories with a rich variety of cases, mapping out fertile territories for future relational study of durable inequality”
For a critical note on this book, see Mike Savage:

http://www.socresonline.org.uk/3/2/savage.html

 

 

 

 

The Facts of World Inequalities
Danny Dorling on Inequalities

http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2012/05/danny-dorling-on-inequality/

and a quick listing? Try

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwIEZDMDBo4

 

Page 184-5

Here is a clickable listing of the Data list given on page 183-6
World Top Incomes Database http://topincomes.parisschoolofeconomics.eu/

Rich List (Forbes, Sunday Times) http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/public/richlist/

http://www.forbes.com/billionaires/list/

Oxfam Report on Global Poverty:

https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/file_attachments/bp210-economy-one-percent-tax-havens-180116-en_0.pdf

 

For the original Credit Suisse Study see:

Credit Suisse (2015) ‘Global Wealth Databook 2015’. Total net wealth at constant exchange rate (USD billion).

http://publications.credit-suisse.com/tasks/render/file/index.cfm?fileid=C26E3824-E868-56E0-

CCA04D4BB9B9ADD5

An Economy for the 1% 18th January 2016

 

 

Global Slavery Index http://www.globalslaveryindex.org/

Human Development Index (HDI) http://hdr.undp.org/en
Inequality Adjusted Human Development Index
Gender Inequality Index (GID) http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/table-4-gender-inequality-index

see also: http://www.unwomen.org/en
Displaced Migrants: http://www.internal-displacement.org/

Human Security Index: http://www.humansecurityindex.org/

See also:

http://www.globalissues.org/article/26/poverty-facts-and-stats

 

Finally, The United Nations monitors the responses of states across the world, while Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch produce regular nation based comparisons and reports

 

Map of United Nations Indicators on Rights: http://indicators.ohchr.org/

Human Rights Watch http://www.hrw.org/

Amnesty International http://www.amnesty.org.uk/

Annual State Sponsored Homophobia Report on PDF

http://ilga.org/

and http://ilga.org/what-we-do/state-sponsored-homophobia-report/
The Vision of Humanity web site and follow up the leads it provides. See: http://www.visionofhumanity.org

(You will find both the Global Peace Index and The Terrorism Index)

Global Peace Index

http://www.visionofhumanity.org/#/page/indexes/global-peace-index

The Terrorism Index

Global Cost of Violence Report http://www.copenhagenconsensus.com/sites/default/files/conflict_assessment_-_hoeffler_and_fearon_0.pdf
Some more Data

Global wealth is increasingly concentrated in the hands of a small wealthy elite.

Oxfam’s frequently cited fact in 2014: ‘85 billionaires have the same wealth as the bottom half of the world’s population.’

In 2014, the richest 1% of people in the world owned 48% of global wealth, leaving just 52% to be shared between the other 99% of adults on the planet.1 Almost all of that 52% is owned by those included in the richest 20%, leaving just 5.5% for the remaining 80% of people in the world. If this trend continues of an increasing wealth share to the richest, the top 1% will have more wealth than the remaining 99% of people in just two years, as shown on Figure 2, with the wealth share of the top 1% exceeding 50% by 2016.

The Rich List

And in the UK, the Sunday Times Rich list published in April 2015 showed that the wealth of Britain’s richest people has more than doubled in the last ten years. The wealthiest 1,000 individuals and families now have a combined fortune of £547.126 BILLION up from £249.615 billion recorded in 2005.

Here is a list of Britain’s wealthiest 25 people, according to The Sunday Times Rich List.

1 Len Blavatnik £13.17 billion 
2 Sri and Gopi Hinduja £13 billion 
3 Galen and George Weston and family £11 billion 
4 Alisher Usmanov £9.8 billion 
5 David and Simon Reuben £9.7 billion 
6 Ernesto and Kirsty Bertarelli £9.45 billion 
7 Lakshmi Mittal and family £9.2 billion 
8 Kirsten and Jorn Rausing £8.7 billion 
9 The Duke of Westminster £8.56 billion 
10 Roman Abramovich £7.29 billion 
11 John Fredriksen and family £7.24 billion 
12 Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken and Michel de Carvalho £7.145 billion 
13 Sir David and Sir Frederick Barclay £6.5 billion 
14 Hans Rausing and family £6.4 billion 
15 Mohamed Bin Issa Al Jaber and family £5.935 billion 
16 Carrie and Francois Perrodo and family £5.8 billion 
17 Nathan Kirsh £5.06 billion 
18 Earl Cadogan and family £4.8 billion 
19 Nicky Oppenheimer and family £4.55 billion 
20 Sir Richard Branson and family £4.1 billion 
21 Bruno Schroder and family £3.76 billion 
22= Mike Ashley £3.5 billion 
22= Sir James Dyson and family £3.5 billion 
22= Sir Philip and Lady Green £3.5 billion 
25 Sir Henry Keswick and family £3.275 billion

What is shocking about all this is that the world has been gripped by a period of recession and austerity. So how is it possible that the rich – who caused the international banking crisis in the first place – have done so well out of it?

 

More Reading

 

Oxfam International (2014) Even It Up: Time to End Extreme Inequality

(2015) Wealth: Having it all and wanting more https://www.oxfam.org/en/research/wealth-having-it-all-and-wanting-more

 

Danny Dorling (2014) Inequality and the 1%
 (Verso, 2014)
A University of Oxford social geographer has written widely on the horrors of austerity – on poverty, inequality and the housing crisis. He explains why we cannot afford the rich.

 

Stewart Lansley and Joanna Mack (2015) Breadline Britain: The Rise of Mass Poverty One World. Poverty in Britain is now at crisis levels and the current government stigmatizes, excludes and blames the poor whilst protecting the rich.

 

Annette Hastings et al (2015) The Costs of the Cuts: The Impact on Local Givernments and Poorer Communities London: Rowntree see: http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/Summary-Final.pdf

 

Thomas Piketty (2014) Capital in the Twenty-First Century
 (Harvard University Press, 2014)
 Widely discussed, and already a classic, a French economist explores not just how unequal we have become but also shows how even more unequal we are rapidly becoming.

 

Goran Therborn (2013) The Killing Fields of Inequality. Cambridge: Polity

 

James Meek (2015 rev ed) Treasure Island: Why Britain Now Belongs to Some one Else. Verso Critical examination of the ways in which Britain’s public services have been sold off – so the rich benefit and the poor pay.

 

Kerry-Anne Mendoza (2015) Austerity: The Demolition of the Welfare State and the Rise of the Zombie Economy. Oxford: New Internationalist

 

Andrew Sayer (2015) Why we can’t afford the rich/ Bristol: Policy Press

A startling book by a well-known and respected sociologist. He shows how the new economy – and austerity– works to make the rich richer and the poor poorer; how this is now done on a massive scale as the rich live lives cut off from the 99% of the world. Full of quite shocking detail that leads one to ask : just how are they getting away with making our world such a terrible place?

 

Joseph Stiglitz (2012) The Price of Inequality: How Today’s Divided Society Endangers Our Future
 (W.W. Norton)
A Nobel Prize-winning economist paints a vivid picture.

 

Polly Toynbee & David Walker (2015) Cameron’s Coup: How The Tories took Britain to the Brink. Guardian Books. A journalist and obviously partisan book that shows just how much havoc the Coalition has hurled at Britain over the past five years.

 

John Urry (2014) Offshoring . Cambridge: Polity. One of the world’s leading sociologists details the problem of the rich ‘ffshoring’…..

 

Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett (2009) The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger
 (Bloomsbury Press, 2009)
Became an instant classic as it showed that by every measure that matters, from social trust to how long we live, relatively equal nations outperform nations where income concentrates at the top.
Page 186 On Caste

There are a number of films about the caste system on the You Tube: see

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FKZxAAAiJdg&index=3&list=PLDnc1tQT3zoGZgii9LxHrBgzxtVVuLe3E

 

See also: Arudhati Roy On Capitalism and Caste

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3tkQyqLnFbk

 

Page 187   On Slavery

See the documentary: Slavery- A 21st Century Evil (2011) at

http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/slavery-21st-century-evil/

Wikipedia has a list of films featuring slavery: see

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_films_featuring_slavery

 

Page 188 social class

For a review of the Mike Savage et al book

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/nov/13/social-class-21st-century-mike-savage-review

To ask what is your social class, see:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-34766169

 

A recent study to help you investigate the vast writings on social class, look at:

Will Atkinson Class (2015) Polity

An Amazon Blurb says:
Class is not only amongst the oldest and most controversial of all concepts in social science, but a topic which has fascinated, amused, incensed and galvanized the general public, too. But what exactly is a class ? How do sociologists study and measure it, and how does it correspond to everyday understandings of social difference? Is it now dead or dying in today s globalized and media–saturated world, or is it entering a new phase of significance on the world stage?

 

This book seeks to explore these questions in an accessible and lively manner, taking readers through the key theoretical traditions in class research, the major controversies that have shaken the field and the continuing effects of class difference, class struggle and class inequality across a range of domains.

 

The book will appeal to students and scholars in sociology, social policy, geography, education, cultural studies and health sciences.

 

 

Wendy Bottero Stratification: Social Division and Inequality 2005 Routledge

Tony Bennett, Mike Savage, Elizabeth Silva, Alan Warde, Modesto Gayo-Cal, David Wright: Culture, Class, Distinction. 2009   Routledge
Page 188-9 The Globally Excluded

See Children Living in the Guatemala City Dump; Children of the 4th World – Documentary

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O6SPy9qV1M4

 

The Precariat

See Guy Standing: his book A Precariat Charter and he discusses all this on:
“A Precariat Charter: From Denizens to Citizens”, a Seminar with Guy Standing
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGLSGeqF1Po

The notion of The Dispossessed is seen in the science fiction of Ursula Le Gn her novel of that name: hear:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ebb6V-4c0Xw
In human societies, differences are used as moral markers to establish how some are better than others. Moral worth is often attached to this labeling as boundaries are established of the normal and

For a discussion of class and moral boundaries, see especially the work of Michele Lamont: Money, Morals and Manners. 1994. Chicago ; and The Dignity of Working Men 2002 Harvard UP.

 

Page 189

Kimberley Crenshaw is usually seen as the first writers to talk about intersectionality, see her at:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KNKbGFoYC1Q
On intersectional theory: see :

Patricia Hill Collins   Black Feminist Thought 1990 , 2008 3rd ed Routledge
Yvette Taylor ed   Classed Intersections 2010, Ashgate

 

Page 191

On the BBC Survey and Mike Savage etc see

A New Model of Social Class? Findings from the BBC’s Great British Class Survey Experiment Sociology April 2013 vol. 47 no. 2 219-250
http://soc.sagepub.com/content/47/2/219.short

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/arts/books/non-fiction/article4605595.ece

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/0/21970879

 

Page 193

There is much on Bourdieu on the web site. See

HyperBourdieu© WorldCatalogue

http://hyperbourdieu.jku.at/

An online bibliography of comments and elaborations of Bourdieu’s work

http://web.archive.org/web/20080302205941/http://www.massey.ac.nz/~nzsrda/bourdieu/byauthgr.htm

Bourdieu Foundation

http://www.fondation-bourdieu.org/

 

A useful starting point here is the Wikipedia entry.

 

On gender, the literature is equally vast: sample-

  1. Connell Masculinities (1995; 2nd ed 2005) Polity

Amy S Wharton       The Sociology of Gender 2005   Blackwell

Angela Mcrobbie     The aftermath of feminism 2008 Sage

 

An important statement from a long standing central figure is:

Catherine A. MacKinnon    Are Women Human? 2006 Harvard

A contemporary history of feminism is:

Lynne Segal              Why Feminism? 1999 Polity

A sample of twenty first century feminist texts include:

Natasha Walter                    Living Dolls : The Return of sexism 2010 Virago

Kate Banyard                        The Equality Illusion 2010 Faber and Faber

Catherine Redfern & Kristin Aune Reclaiming the Word 2010 Zed
Page 194

Some recent work in this field published as this edition of the book goes to press can be found in the debates in Sociology One Line: The Matter of Race (August 2015: 20, 3, 13): see

http://www.socresonline.org.uk/20/3/13.html

A useful article that can be downloaded on racialization is from Didier Fassin, and he extends the work of Du Bois: see his article at

https://www.sss.ias.edu/files/pdfs/Fassin/Racialization.pdf

 

see also:
Black Lives Matter?

http://blacklivesmatter.com/
Page 195

A wide ranging tour of the current field of disability studies can be found in:

Lennard J.Davis the Disability Studies Reader 2010 3rd edition. Routledge

 

Page 196

The classic writing here is

Eve Kasofsky Sedgwick Epistemology of the Closet 1990 Harvester/ Penguin

Judith Butler   Gender Trouble 1990 Routledge

See also:

Nicki Sullivan A Critical Introduction to Queer Theory 2003 Edinburgh University

 

 

Page 197 The Generational and Age Order

The classic studies are by Mannheim and Eisenstadt:

Karl Mannheim ‘’The problem of generations’ in Collected works of Karl Mannheim Vol 5 p276-320.London: Routledge

S.N. Eisenstadt   From Generation to Generation 1956 Free Press

More recently see:

June Edmunds and Bryan S.Turner Generations, culture and society. 2002. Open University Press

 

For an application of generational theory, see my own work:

Ken Plummer Generational Sexualities, Subterranean Traditions and the Hauntings of the Sexual World: Some Preliminary Remarks   2010 Symbolic Interaction. Vol 33.No 2 p162-p190

 

Page 200 Voices of the Poor: Can anyone hear us was published by the UN in 2000.

It is the the first in a three-part series, about the common patterns that emerged from the poor people’s experiences in many different places. Chapter 1 sets out the conceptual framework and methodology. Chapter 2 discusses poverty from the perspective of the poor. Chapter 3 examines poor people’s experience with the state, and includes case studies of access to health care and education. Chapter 4 addresses the nature and quality of poor people’s interactions with civil society. Chapter 5 considers the household as a key social institution, and discusses gender relations within households and how these relations affect and are affected by larger institutions of society. Chapter 6 focuses on social fragmentation, and includes a discussion of social cohesion and social exclusion. Chapter 7 concludes the analysis and proposes some policy recommendations. The analysis leads to these conclusions: 1) poverty is multidimensional; 2) the state has been largely ineffective in reaching the poor; 3) the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the lives of the poor is limited, forcing the poor to depend primarily on their own informal networks; 4) households are crumbling under the stresses of poverty; and 5) the social fabric – poor people’s only “insurance” – is unraveling.

It can be downloaded in full: see: Deepa Narayan: Voices of the Poor: Can anyone hear us

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTPOVERTY/0,,contentMDK:20622514~menuPK:336998~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:336992,00.html

Volume 2 is subtitled: Crying Out for Change (2004).

 

Page 202

On divisive social processes in general, I have been influenced by – and would strongly recommend reading:

Iris Marion Young Justice and the Politics of Difference 1990 Princeton Chapter 2

 

Page 204

On marginalisation, see Iris Marion Young Justice and the Politics of Difference 1990 Princeton Chapter 2 :p53-6

On exclusion, see David Byrne Social Exclusion 2005 2nd edition Open University

On stereotyping, see Michael Pickering   Stereotyping: The Politics of Representation 2001 Palgrave

 

Page 204

The Process of Exploitation

See: Iris Marion Young Justice and the Politics of Difference 1990 Princeton Chapter 2 p48-53

 

Page 205

Violence as the division of last resort

There is an excellent text on this, strongly recommended:

Peter Iadicola & Anson Shupe: Violence, Inequality and Human Freedom. 2003 2nd edition. Rowman and Littlefield.

 

The Armed Conflict Survey (ACS) is a new annual publication that provides yearly data on fatalities, refugees and internally displaced people for all major armed conflicts, alongside in-depth analysis of their political, military and humanitarian dimensions. The first edition of the book covers the key developments and context of more than 40 conflicts, including those in Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Myanmar, Syria and Yemen.

The ACS features essays by some of the world’s leading authorities on armed conflict, who write on subjects such as:

  • the development of jihadism after 9/11;
  • hybrid warfare;
  • refugees and internally displaced people;
  • criminality and conflict;
  • the evolution of peacekeeping operations

see:

https://www.iiss.org/en/publications/acs/by%20year/armed-conflict-survey-2015-46e5

 

The IISS was founded in the UK in 1958 with a focus on nuclear deterrence and arms control. Today, it is also renowned for its annual Military Balance assessment of countries’ armed forces and for its high-powered security summits, including the Shangri-La Dialogue.

 

 

 

Page 207

On Martha Nussbaum’s ideas see interview with her on the You Tube at:

Conversations with history: September 14th 2006 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qy3YTzYjut4

 

See also; The Human Development and Capability Association

http://www.capabilityapproach.com/index.php

 

and its journal
Journal of Human Development and Capabilities A Multi-Disciplinary Journal for People-Centered Development


Here is a summary of Martha Nussbaum’s Central Human Functional Capabilities.

 

  1. Being able to live to the end of a human life of normal length; not dying prematurely or before one’s life is so reduced as to be not worth living
  2. Bodily Health and Integrity. Being able to have good health, including reproductive health; being adequately nourished; being able to have adequate shelter
  3. Bodily Integrity. Being able to move freely from place to place; being able to be secure against violent assault, including sexual assault, marital rape, and domestic violence; having opportunities for sexual satisfaction and for choice in matters of reproduction.
  4. Senses, imagination, thought. Being able to use the senses; being able to imagine, to think, and to reason – and to do these things in a “truly human” way, a way informed and cultivated by an adequate education, including, but by no means limited to, literacy and basic mathematical and scientific training; being able to use imagination and thought in connection with experiencing and producing expressive works and events of one’s own choice (religious, literary, musical etc.); being able to use one’s mind in ways protected by guarantees of freedom of expression wit respect to both political and artistic speech and freedom of religious exercise; being able to have pleasurable experiences and to avoid nonbeneficial pain
  5. Being able to have attachments to things and persons outside ourselves; being able to love those who love and care for us; being able to grieve at their absence; in general being able to love, to grieve, to experience longing, gratitude, and justified anger; not having one’s emotional developing blighted by fear or anxiety. (Supporting this capability means supporting forms of human association that can be shown to be crucial in their development.
  6. Practical reason. Being able to form a conception of the good and to engage in critical reflection about the planning of one’s own life. (This entails protection for the liberty of conscience.)
  7. (a) Being able to live for and in relation to others, to recognize and show concern for other human beings, to engage in various forms of social interaction; being able to imagine the situation of another and to have compassion for the situation; having the capability for both justice and friendship. (Protecting this capability means, once again, protecting institutions that constitute such forms of affiliation, and also protecting institutions that constitute such forms of affiliation, and also protecting the freedoms of assembly and political speech.) (b) Having the social bases of self-respect and nonhumiliation; being able to be treated as a dignified being whose worth is equal to that of others. (This entails provisions of nondiscrimination.)
  8. Other species. Being able to live with concern for and in relation to animals, plants, and the world of nature
  9. Being able to laugh, to play, to enjoy recreational activities.
  10. Control over one’s environment. (a) Political: being able to participate effectively in political choices that govern one’s life; having the rights of political participation, free speech, and freedom of association (b) Material: being able to hold property (both land and movable goods); having the right to seek employment on an equal basis with others; having the freedom from unwarranted search and seizure. In work, being able to work as a human being, exercising practical reason and entering into meaningful relationships of mutual recognition with other workers.

From Martha Nussbaum Sex and Social Justice. 1999: 41-2; but it can be found everywhere in her work (eg Frontiers of Justice); and most recently in Creating Capabilities (2011) and Development and Change, Forum 2006 Vol 37, No 6 November 2006 p1325-7, where she also comments on problems with the list – page 1315.

 

The Oxfam Recommendations for Change:

See on line PDF: January 2016 Oxfam – An Economy for the 1%

 

  1. Pay workers a living wage and close the gap with executive rewards: by increasing minimum wages towards living wages; with transparency on pay ratios; and protecting workers’ rights to unionize and strike.
  2. Promote women’s economic equality and women’s rights: by providing compensation for unpaid care; ending the gender pay gap; promoting equal inheritance and land rights for women; and improving data collection to assess how women and girls are affected by economic policy.
  3. Keep the influence of powerful elites in check: by building mandatory public lobby registries and stronger rules on conflict of interest; ensuring that good-quality information on administrative and budget processes is made public and is free and easily accessible; reforming the regulatory environment, particularly around transparency in government; separating business from campaign financing; and introducing measures to close revolving doors between big business and government.
  4. Change the global system for R&D and the pricing of medicines so that everyone has access to appropriate and affordable medicines: by negotiating a new global R&D treaty; increasing investment in medicines, including in affordable generics; and excluding intellectual property rules from trade agreements. Financing R&D must be delinked from the pricing of medicines in order to break companies’ monopolies, ensuring proper financing of R&D for needed therapy and affordability of resulting products.
  5. Share the tax burden fairly to level the playing field: by shifting the tax burden away from labour and consumption and towards wealth, capital and income from these assets; increasing transparency on tax incentives; and introducing national wealth taxes.
  6. Use progressive public spending to tackle inequality: by prioritizing policies, practice and spending that increase financing for free public health and education to fight poverty and inequality at a national level. Refrain from implementing unproven and unworkable market reforms to public health and education systems, and expand public sector rather than private sector delivery of essential services.

 

 

 


CHAPTER EIGHT

VISIONS: CREATING SOCIOLOGICAL HOPE

P212 – 236

 

 

 

Page 212

The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it.

Karl Marx, Theses on Feuerbach, 1845,Thesis 11 and engraved upon his tomb

See all the Theses here:

https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/theses/theses.htm

 

Page 213- 4

Ernest Bloch’s three volumes on The Principle of Hope (written at the end of the holocaust) shows how throughout history all societies have needed a sense of hope.

You can find an introduction to it at:

https://www.marxists.org/archive/bloch/hope/introduction.htm

 

page 213: Think on: Sociology and utopia

For discussions on sociological utopias, see:

Eric Ohlin Wright (1947-)

http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~wright/RealUtopias.htm

http://understandingsociety.blogspot.co.uk/2010/06/real-utopias.html

 

and see him ‘live’ on the You Tube:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RzqOc-gkI-o

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X-KcHtYCtTs

 

See a discussion on the idea of Sociological Utopias and the Centre for the Utopian Studies by Ruth Levitas

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bYt_L6e9Zdg

 

Look also at the Ralahine Centre for Utopian Studies and their work

http://ulsites.ul.ie/ralahinecentre/

 

There is also a journal called Utopian Studies : see

http://www.psupress.org/journals/jnls_utopian_studies.html

 

See also:

The debate about utopias from a sociological perspective[1]

Richard Kilminster Human Figurations

Volume 3Issue 2, June 2014

http://www.norberteliasfoundation.nl/docs/pdf/Utopias.pdf

 

Page 216

For other answers to the question of What sociologists do? see

http://www.topuniversities.com/student-info/careers-advice/what-can-you-do-sociology-degree

http://sociology.ucdavis.edu/undergraduate-program/career-options

 

The British Sociological Association’s Response:
http://www.britsoc.co.uk/what-is-sociology/what-do-sociologists-do.aspx

 

Page 219

An interesting article to introduce to to the idea of Communication ethics and dialogue in sociology is:

http://www.communicationcache.com/uploads/1/0/8/8/10887248/a_conversation_about_communication_ethics_with_ronald_c._arnett.pdf

Take a look at the book:

Communication, ethics, literacy by Ronald C Arnett and others. Sage 2009

 

On Bakhtin

 

The key writer and philosopher on dialogue is M. Bakhtin. See his

Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays (1982: University of Texas Press) by M.M. Bakhtin, Michael Holquist, and Caryl Emerson

Rabelais and His World by M.M. Bakhtin and Helene Iswolsky ( 1984) Indiana University Press

For an introduction to his work see:

http://www.isfp.co.uk/russian_thinkers/mikhail_bakhtin.html

http://www.iep.utm.edu/bakhtin/

 

Page 219

Deborah Tannen is prolific. Most of her books are about the misunderstandings between men and women. A classic is : The Argument Culture: Changing the Way We Argue and Debate

See Deborah Tannen http://www.deborahtannen.com/

 

Page 221

On Citizenship:

The classic sociological statement on Citizenship is by T.H.Marshall and can be found at:

http://www.jura.uni-bielefeld.de/lehrstuehle/davy/wustldata/1950_Marshall_Citzenship_and_Social_Class_OCR.pdf

 

On TH Marshall see: Citizenship Today: Contemporary Relevance of T.H. Marshall by Martin Bulmer & Anthony Rees ( University of Southampton) 1996: Routledge

 

For recent debates, see the journal Citizenship Studies

http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ccst20#.VsnJ_yhQ0uI

 

Page 222 The Circle of Sociological Life

Note that I have rethought this a little since the first edition of the book. This is a different circle, reorganized and separating out public from ‘pop’ular sociology, hence adding a new phase.

Compare p192 1st edition, with p222 second edition.

Ideas keep moving on!

 

 

Page 222 – 3. Public Sociology

The core paper on Public Sociology by Burawoy can be downloaded from:
http://burawoy.berkeley.edu/Public%20Sociology,%20Live/Burawoy.pdf

And watched on:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8NxvPKGtkUQ

 

Michael Burawoy. A lot of his work can be accessed via his web site at:

http://burawoy.berkeley.edu/

 

For videos on Public Sociology, see:

http://burawoy.berkeley.edu/PS.Webpage/ps.videos.htm

 

On Margaret Archer and the Vatican

https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/people/qa-with-margaret-archer/2013413.article

 

 

Page 223

Studying sociology in professional courses will bring its own text books like Elaine Denny and Sarah Earle’s Sociology for Nurses (2016 3rd ed) or Anne Llewlynn & Lorraine Agu’s Sociology for Social Workers (2014, 2nd ed).

 

Page 224 Popular Sociology

For current listings of so called popular books in sociology see
‘Sociology Best Sellers’ – with a strong US bias:

https://contexts.org/articles/a-fresh-look-at-sociology-bestsellers/
For access to Laurie Taylor’s programme (which is also accessible on pod casts) , search:

Laurie Taylor   Thinking allowed:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006qy05

 

On Owen Jones. see

http://www.theguardian.com/profile/owen-jones

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCSYCo8uRGF39qDCxF870K5Q
On Naomi Klein, see

http://www.naomiklein.org/main
And Naomi Klein and Owen Jones together at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dhJA7HCPHDA

 

On Grayson Perry on identity The Channel Four programmes Who Are You?see

http://www.channel4.com/programmes/grayson-perry-who-are-you

 

On Antony Gormley on The Body, see

http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2004/apr/22/guesteditors3

 

On Sebastio Salagundi’s The Salt of the Earth (2014) dir Juliana Salagundi, Wim Wenders
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt3674140/

For a Trailer: see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OivMlWXtWpY

And his lecture on the The Drama of Photography

(A TED Lecture: Feb 2-13)

https://www.ted.com/talks/sebastiao_salgado_the_silent_drama_of_photography?language=en

 

 

See Pierre Bourdieu at work as a public intellectual, see …..

You Tube: Sociology as a Martial Art

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Csbu08SqAuc

(but it is in French with translation)

 

 

Page 224
The term ‘Moral Imagination’ was probably first used by the literary critic Lionel Trilling; and is certainly the title of a book by Getrude Himmelfarb (1907).

 

Page 225 -6

On the Value Debate, see For Max Weber’s classic texts: -6 http://www.ne.jp/asahi/moriyuki/abukuma/weber_texts.html

Look especially at: Objectivity in social science, Science as a vocation :Politics as a vocation. All downloadable.

 

Page 228

See my discussion on the Common Ground in
Ken Plummer Intimate Citizenship 2003 : Washington Chapter 7

Cosmopolitan Sexualities

 

A Classic illustration of this The Golden Rule

Ancient Egyptian: Eloquent Peasant, 109 – 110

Baha’i Faith: Gleanings

Buddhism: Udana-Varga 5.1, Samyutta Nikaya v.353, Sutta Nipata 705

Christianity: Bible Matthew 7.12, Matthew 22.36-40, Leviticus 19.18

Confucianism: Analects 15.23, Mencius VII.A.4

Hinduism: Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva 113.8, Mahabharata 5:1517

Humanism: British Humanist Society

Native American Spirituality: The Great Law of Peace, Black Elk, Pima proverb

Islam: Forty Hadith of an-Nawawi 13

ainism: Acarangasutra 5.101-2, Sutrakritanga 1.11.33

Judaism: Leviticus 19.18, Shabbat 31a

Shinto:Ko-ji-ki Hachiman Kasuga

Sikhism: Guru Granth Sahib, pg. 1299

Sufism: Javad Nurbakhsh

Taoism: T’ai Shang Kan Ying P’ien, 213-218

Unitarianism: Unitarian principle

Wicca: Wiccan Rede

Yoruba: Yoruba Proverb (Nigeria)

Zoroastrianism: Shayast-na-Shayast 13.29

See on line: http://www.religioustolerance.org/reciproc.htm

 

 

Page 228 -9

Here is a short list of works to help you take some of these ideas further.

 

On Care
You Tube: See some speakers on care:

Nel Noddings : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ns-XreddOis

Joan Tronto Caring Democracy: Markets, Equality and Justice NYU Press 2013

And see her on line at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H-utAjZ_obc

 

Reading:
Joan Tronto   Caring Democracy
Marian Barnes Care in Everyday Life

Michael D.Fine A Caring Society? Care and the Dilemmas of Human Service in the Human Service Industry in the 21st Century 2007 Palgrave

Natan Sznaider The Compassionate Temperament: care and Cruelty in Modern Society 2001 Rowman and Littlefield

Nial Scott & Jonathan Seglow Altruism 2007 Open University McGraw Hill

Ian Wilkinson Suffering: A Sociological Introduction 2005 Polity Press

 

On Freedom. Equality and Justice, see

Michael Sandel’s famous seminar /lecture discussions on the You Tube at:

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL30C13C91CFFEFEA6

 

On Justice

Amartya Sen                         The Idea of Justice (2009) Allen Lane.

Michael Sandel                                  Justice: What’s the right thing to do? (2007/2009) Penguin
Iris Marion Young               Justice and the politics of difference (1990) Princeton

Nancy Fraser                                    ‘From Redistribution to Recognition: Dilemmas of Justice in a ‘Post-socialist’ Age’.           in Nancy Fraser. Justice Interruptus (1997: Chapter 1)
————                               The Scales of Justice

Sam Harris                            The Moral Landscape:How Science Can Determine Human Values (2011) Bantham.

Lukes, Steven                                   Moral Relativism 2008 Profile

Peter Singer                          Writings on an Ethical Life (2000) Harper Collins
Ronld Dworkin                                Justice for Hedgehogs (2011)

 

 

On Dialogue

Taylor, Charles et al                      Multiculturalism: Examining the politics of recognition (1994) Princeton

Frank, Arthur                                   Letting Stories Breathe: A Socio-Narratology (2010)

Bakhtin, Michel                                 The Dialogic Imagination
Habermas, Jurgen              Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action (1992) Polity

Arnett, Ronald C. et al                    Communication Ethics, Literacy: Dialogue & Difference (2009) Sage
Benhabib, Seyla                               The Claims of Culture: Equality and diversity in the global era (2002)

Zygmunt Bauman               Postmodern Ethics (1999) Blackwell

Lois McNay                           Against Recognition (2008) Polity

Kwame Anthony Appiah   The Ethics of Identity (2007) Princeton

 

Page 229

On Cosmopolitanism

What is Cosmopolitanism?
For the Ghanian-American philosopher Kwame Anthony Appiah, in his book Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a world of Strangers ( 2006)) it is a ‘universal concern and respect for legitimate difference’ (Appiah,2006:xv). For the Swedish anthropologist Ulf Hannerz (in Ulf Hannerz   Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places.( 1996) it is ‘a mode of managing meaning’ ‘ a willingness to engage with the other’. ‘It entails an intellectual and aesthetic openness toward divergent cultural experiences, a search for contrasts rather than uniformity. ……(It is) a state of readiness: an ability to make one’s way into other cultures, through listening, looking, intuiting and reflecting (Hannerz: 1996: p103). For the German sociologist Ulrich Beck (who is at the forefront of sociological writers in this field) we have arrived at the ‘cosmopolitan moment’ as an emergent and distinctive feature of modernity: ‘the human condition has itself become cosmopolitan’. We live with the ideas that ‘local, national, ethnic, religious and cosmopolitan cultures and traditions interpenetrate, interconnect and intermingle – cosmopolitanism without provincialism is empty, provincialism without cosmopolitanism is blind’ (Beck Cosmopolitan Vision 2006:p7). For the British sociologist, Robert Fine, cosmopolitanism is bound up deeply with international law and human rights. Indeed, cosmopolitanism is both ‘a determinate social form’ which ‘reconfigures’ a whole sphere of (potentially contradictory) rights as well as being a ‘form of consciousness that involves an understanding of the concept of cosmopolitanism and a capacity to develop the concept in imaginative and reflexive’. He sees it as both outlook (a way of seeing the world) and a condition ( an existing form of the world) (In Cosmopolitanism p 111, 134.) Finally, for the influential US feminist philosopher Martha Nussbaum, it raises the issue of a ‘decent world culture’ and a world moral community:

 

If our world is to be a decent world in the future, we must acknowledge right now that we are citizens of one interdependent world, held together by mutual fellowship as well as the pursuit of mutual advantage, by compassion as well as self interest, by a love of human dignity, in all people, even when there is nothing to gain from cooperating with them. Or rather even when we have to gain the biggest thing of all: participation in a just and morally decent world. Martha Nussbaum Frontiers of Justice 2006: p324

 

On Human development and Human Flourishing

Severine Deneulin with Lial Shahini eds An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach. 2009 Earthscan

On Martha Nussbaum and Capabilties:

Books

  • Martha Nussbaum (2011), Creating Capabilities; The Human Development Approach. Harvard University Press.
  • Séverine Deneulin with Lila Shahani (eds) (2009), An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach, available online at ca/en/ev-143029-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
  • Sakiko Fukuda-Parr and Shiv Kumar (eds) (2009), Handbook in Human Development, Delhi: Oxford University Press.
  • Amartya Sen (2009), The Idea of Justice, London: Allen Lane
  • Sabina Alkire (2002), Valuing Freedoms, Oxford University Press
  • Martha Nussbaum (2000), Women and Human Development, Cambridge University Press
  • Amartya Sen (1999), Development as Freedom, Oxford University Press
  • Amartya Sen (1992), Inequality Re-examined, Oxford University Press

Introductory articles

  • Ingrid Robeyns  (2011), “The Capability Approach”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/capability-approach.
  • Ingrid Robeyns (2005), “The Capability Approach: A Theoretical Survey”, Journal of Human Development 6(1): 93–114.
  • Sabina Alkire (2005), “Why the Capability Approach”, Journal of Human Development 6(1): 115–33.
  • Martha Nussbaum (2003) “Capabilities as Fundamental Entitlements: Sen and Social Justice”, Feminist Economics 9 (2–3): 33–59.
  • Sabina Alkire (2002), “Dimensions of Human Development”, World Development 30 (2), 181–205.
  • Amartya Sen (1993),” Capability and Well-Being”, in M. Nussbaum and A. Sen (eds.) The Quality of Life, Oxford Clarendon Press, pp. 30–53.
  • Martha Nussbaum (1993), “Non-Relative Virtues: An Aristotelian Approach”, in M. Nussbaum and A. Sen (eds) The Quality of Life, Oxford Clarendon Press, pp. 242–69.
  • Amartya Sen (1989), “Development as Capability Expansion”, Journal of Development Planning 19: 41–58, reprinted in: Sakiko Fukuda-Parr and A.K. Shiva Kumar (eds.) (2003), Readings in Human Development, Oxford University Press, pp. 3–16
  • Amartya Sen (1988), “The Concept of Development”, in Behram and Strinivasan (eds.) Handbooks of Development Economics. Elsevier: North-Holland, pp. 3–23.

 

There are also web sites that provide entrances:

Web Sites on Humanism, Human Flourishing and Common Grounds

Human Development and Capabilities Association (HDCA)

“is a global community of academics and practitioners that seeks to build an intellectual community around the ideas of human development and the capability approach, and relate these ideas to the policy arena.  The association promotes research within many disciplines, ranging from economics to philosophy, development studies, health, education, law, government, sociology, and more. Our members live in over 70 countries worldwide

https://hd-ca.org/

Search for Common Ground: Understanding differences, working on commonalities

“Founded in 1982, Search for Common Ground works to transform the way the world deals with conflict – away from adversarial approaches and towards collaborative problem solving. We work with local partners to find culturally appropriate means to strengthen societies’ capacity to deal with conflicts constructively: to understand the differences and act on the commonalities. Using innovative tools and working at different levels of society, we engage in pragmatic long-term processes of conflict transformation. Our toolbox includes media production – radio, TV, film and print – mediation and facilitation, training, community organizing, sports, theater and music. We promote both individual and institutional change and are committed to measuring the results of our work and increase our effectiveness through monitoring and evaluation. We currently work in 26 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East.”

http://www.sfcg.org/sfcg/sfcg_intro.html

 

On Rights and Dignity

Human Rights

Fagan, Andrew                   The Atlas of Human Rights 2010 Myriad

Morris, Lydia ed                  Rights: Sociological Perspectives 2006 Routledge

Freeman, Michael               Human Rights 2002 Polity

Ishay, M.R. (2004)                The History of Human Rights: From ancient times to the globalization era, California: California University Press

Ishay, Micheline R ed                     The Human Rights Reader ( 2nd ed 2007 Routledge)

Lukes, Steven                                   ‘Five Fables About Human Rights’ in On Human Rights ed Stephen Shute and Susan Huxley (1993: Oxford)

Kay Schafer and Sidonie Smith      Human rights and Narrated Lives: The ethics of recognition (2004) Palgrave

Ken Plummer                                   Intimate Citizenship: Private Decisions and Public Dialogues (2003)Washington

 

 

Page 230

Charles Taylor sees the social imaginary as ‘the ways people imagine their social existence, how they fit together with others, how things go on between them and their fellows, the expectations that are normally met, and the deep normative notions and images that underlies these expectations” (2003: p23).

Charles Taylor Modern Social Imaginaries 2003, Duke
http://www.cjsonline.ca/reviews/socialimaginaries.html
http://ant.sagepub.com/content/6/3/322.abstract
John Thompson says the imagnary is the “The creative and symbolic dimensions of the social world through which people live their collective images of life” (Studies in the Theory of Ideology, 1984, page 6).

 

The idea derives from Cornelius Castoriades, 1975, The Imaginary Institution of Society. 1975. It enables us to see how people can imagine their lives as a whole. The idea can work to help clarify boundaries and horizons, limits and possibilities. Utopian imaginaries might lead to the emancipation of individuals from entrenched institutions?

 

There is a Centre for ‘Imaginaries of the Future’ : see

https://imaginariesofthefuture.wordpress.com/

 

 

Page 232

 

Suffering

See Iain Wilkinson http://www.kent.ac.uk/scarr/events/finalpapers/wilkinson.pdf

http://www.medicalsociologyonline.org/oldsite/archives/issue11/probsuf.html

 

Good lives

See Lisa MacFarquhar Strangers Drowning: Voyages to the Brink of Moral Extremity

See also my thoughts on this book:

https://kenplummer.com/2016/01/14/a-book-to-start-the-year-with/

It is the story of ‘extreme do – gooders’, obsessed altruists who push their lives to ‘moral extremity’, wanting above all to solve the world’s problems in a directly practical way – and to be a good person. They shun worlds of comfort, self indulgence and money, and engage with an extreme ethical commitment that means they must do good above all else. They show little interest in anything other than maximising their behaviour to have a good impact on the world. This ‘driveness’ largely come out of childhood experiences, and often religion. They lack the ability which most (?) of us seem to have to shut out the unbearable sufferings of the world- so we can just get on with our own life! Yet whilst these people face many difficulties, they are sort of happy. I wondered as I read the book if this was perhaps the start of a new field of enquiry: the sociology of ‘goodness’?

Larissa MacFarguahar is a journalist at the New Yorker and her book constructs intriguing third person accounts throughout – bringing her seemingly extraordinary people alive in their complexity; and at the same time she weaves through the book a much wider reading of the philosophers, social scientists, self help advocates and novelists who have been critical of such a stance of the world. It all makes for compelling reading.

Let me sample some of the key unusual and maybe uncommon people who tell their stories in this book. Here is Aaron who devotes his life to animal’s rights and has done a great deal to reduce the sufferings of chickens in the world. Here is Dorothy originally a nurse and now in her mid-80s, who has devoted her life to women’s health and midwifery in Mulukuku, Nicaragua. Her former husband, Charles, was impressed by Ghandi and had devoted his life to peace protests. (He also devised a scheme called the World Equity Budget (WEB), which allowed him to calculate, and live on, his fair share of the world’s wealth: $12,000 a year). We meet a couple, Sue and Hector, who adopt some 20 children, many with profound disabilities and troubled lives. They face one problem after another, but have no reservations at all about doing this. There’s Baba, a risk taker if ever there was one, who found a leper colony in India (and tests his son’s courage by sending him to fetch water at a well where a tiger has been heard roaring. And then there is Kimberley, a devoted church goer, who ends up as a missionary in Mozambique. She donates a kidney to a stranger, even as her act inspires hostility from others. And then there is the Buddhist priest in Japan who counsels people who want to commit suicide only to have them turn on him in his hour of need.

The book takes its title Strangers Drowning from Peter Singer’s ideas on ‘effective giving’, and charity as a purely rationalistic, utilitarian act. Human beings are really morally required to reduce the suffering of others in the most effective ways they can. Hence: if you saw two groups of people drowning – your mother, and two other people, who would you save? Saving your mother has less value than two other people. For me this is a non-starter as an ethical puzzle: I would save my mother. But not so for Singer – and most of the people in this book- for whom a refined moral calculus depends upon a highly rationalized counting system.

Of course, the big issue is whether will go along with this long standing tradition of rational utilitarianism, developed by Jeremy Bentham; and Peter Singer has to be the major and most well known of modern proponents. But this view raises a lot of problems. To start with, what might the world look like if everybody did these extremes acts for others, forsaking their own? As MacFarquhar puts it so pointedly: What would the world look like is everyone thought like a do gooder? (p300). This world would be a very different place from the one we live in now. Indeed it is hard to imagine. In part this is because the human problems of suffering and poverty etc would no longer be here; if the problem is solved , what is to be done? And partly because the very thing we take to be humanity – the muddled, vulnerable, frail little animal – would be no more. Suffering and dealing with problems is actually a key feature of our very humanity. A world where everything gets solved in one way only would not be a very human world.

 

Page 233

Life in a Day

https://www.youtube.com/user/lifeinaday

 

Page 234 : Inspirations? New Approaches? Looking Ahead?
And so to end with: here are some writings, talks and ideas to get you talking about where sociology is heading…..

 

John Holmwood Re-Imagining Sociology after the public University

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HiBh-iBpfs8

Universities in Crisis: Markets V Publics

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=COWrlYyeqys

 

Max Haiven Crises of Imagination and Crises of Power

Max Haiven and Alex Khasnabish The Radical Imagination (2014)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jsCUa5IfrX8

 

David Beer Punk Sociology (2014) Palgrave

See: http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2014/03/30/book-review-punk-sociology/

https://simplysociology.wordpress.com/2014/01/28/a-review-of-punk-sociology/

 

David Bollier   Think like a commoner: A short introduction to the life of the Commons (2014)

To hear what the idea of the commons see, click

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0hqrPSR51bw

 

Listen to the sociologist Roberto Unger who sets an important image of what sociology could become:

listen to: http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2014/01/roberto-mangabeira-unger-what-is-wrong-with-the-social-sciences-today/

His critique is mainly of economics but he argues it applies to all the social sciences.
Page 168

 

Numbers

 

 

 

Page 169
Criminal statistics

A useful book to help you understand criminal statistics is

The Mismeasure of Crime by Clayton Mosher et al: see

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Mismeasure-Crime-Clayton-Mosher/dp/1412981816/ref=sr_1_7?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1456154174&sr=1-7&keywords=Critical+criminal+statistics

 

On Rape Statistics, see

Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault by Candace Kruttschnitt, William D. Kalsbeek, and Carol C. House, Editors

http://www.nap.edu/catalog/18605/estimating-the-incidence-of-rape-and-sexual-assault

 

 

Page 170 : Narrative

 

Narratives and stories are among the most powerful instruments for
ordering human experience. Narrative can be expressed in oral or
written language, still or moving pictures, or a mixture of these media.
It is present in myths, legends, fables, tales, short stories, epics,
history, tragedy, drama, comedy, pantomime, paintings, stained glass
windows, movies, local news, and conversation. In its almost infinite
variety of forms, it is present at all times, in all places, and in all
societies. Indeed, narrative starts with the very history of mankind….”
(Barthes, 1975).

 

We tell ourselves stories in order to live

Joan Didion, title of her collected stories.

 

Stories animate human life: that is their work.

Arthur W.Frank   Letting Stories Breathe

 

Narrative makes the earth habitable for human beings” Frank, again: p46

 

We have each of us, a life story, an inner narrative – whose continuity, whose sense is our lives…. A man needs such a narrative, a continuous inner narrative to maintain his identity…

Oliver Sachs opening to The man who mistook his wife for a hat

 

.. There is no best way to tell a story about society. Many genres, many methods, many formats – they can all do the trick. Instead of ideal ways to do it, the world gives us possibilities among which we choose. Every way of telling the story of a society does some of the job superbly but other parts not so well……

Howard S Becker     Telling About Society 2007 : 285

 

“All sorrows can be born if you put them in a story or tell a story about them….” Hannah Arendt: The Human Condition

 

This is what fools people: a man is always a teller of tales, he lives surrounded by his stories and the stories of others, he sees everything that happens to him through them; and he tries to live his life as if he were (recounting it) telling a story.

Jean Paul Sartre Nausea

 

Our life is essentially a set of stories we tell ourselves about our past, present and future… we ‘story’ our lives…in fact, restorying continually goes on within us

G.M. Kenyon and L.W. Randall Restorying Our Lives

 

Our society has become a recited society, in three senses: it is defined by stories (Recits, the fables constituted by our advertising and informational media) by citations of stories, and by the interminable recitation of stories.

Michel de Certeau The Practice of Everyday Life, 1984 p186

 

The significance of narrative in sociology cannot be understimated. We are the narrating animal, telling stories in order to live. As Roland Barthes famously remarked:

 

“Narratives and stories are among the most powerful instruments for ordering human experience. Narrative can be expressed in oral or written language, still or moving pictures, or a mixture of these media. It is present in myths, legends, fables, tales, short stories, epics, history, tragedy, drama, comedy, pantomime, paintings, stained glass windows, movies, local news, and conversation. In its almost infinite variety of forms, it is present at all times, in all places, and in all societies. Indeed, narrative starts with the very history of mankind “ ( Barthes, 1975).

 

Here are some of the kinds of descriptions or narratives that sociologists encounter and indeed make themselves:

 

  1. Common sense narratives- this involves ‘just telling it as it is’. Don’t worry too much about it. Listen to what people say and report it as well as you can.
  2. Statistical narratives – counting it when you can. Try and get to the complexities by counting and measuring. Then you should be able to make generalisations across a host of cases. Through statistics – giving us broad features of who does what where when and maybe why?
  3. Idiographic narrative – the unique tale. Get close to one account of the world, really try and understand it. Capture the in depth complexity in your writing.
  4. Thematic narratives – looking at substance for core themes. Take a number of cases and try to tease out common threads ands themes into your own account. Here you may want to lookout for Formal and structural narratives – finding underlying pattern
  5. Hermeneutic circle narratives ?????
  6. Dialogic and performative narratives – probing self and communication seriously

 

We can gain these narratives:
Through ethnography – giving us an inner sense of the culture, of what is going on here?
Through biographies – giving us a feel of how lives are lived and experience this?
Through documents – giving us a natural glimpse of what is going on – in court records, films, reports
Through visuals – giving us images through which we can see what is going on

 

In a simple way- and following the highly influential anthropologist Clifford Gerrtz- we might want to distinguish between descriptions which are thin, and others which are thick or deep……

 

And ponder the issue of deep description (Geertz).
http://hypergeertz.jku.at/GeertzTexts/Thick_Description.htm

 

Geertz, Clifford. “Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture”. In The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. (New York: Basic Books, 1973) 3-30.

See: http://hypergeertz.jku.at/GeertzTexts/Thick_Description.htm

 

Page 170

 

The Roshomon Effect

 

This is a term based on the famous Japanese film. Akira Kurosawa’s world renowned film, Rashomon, (1950) set in 12th century feudal Japan, tells the story of a woman raped and her samurai husband murdered by a notorious bandit Tajomaru who is later captured and put on trial. The story is then told – through various cunning devices – from the perspectives of four different characters – the bandit, the woman, the samurai – and a passing by wood cutter. All the stories are mutually contradictory and the film poses a challenge about which of the perspectives is true.

See: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0042876/

 

Page 172-3: Human Social Life as perspectival, as a point of view

 

In many ways this is well known and sociologists have to take it seriously. As the literary critic Kenneth Burke has famously put it: “every way of seeing is also a way of not seeing” (1935:70); that “every insight contains its own special kind of blindness” (1984:41). It is even present in a famous childhood poem (by the American poet John Godfrey Saxe) which tells the tale of six blind (but learned) men from Indostan who describe their physical observations of an elephant. Blindfolded, eah is asked to ffeel the epelphadn and describe what they find; and each describe it differently- as ‘very like a wall’,as ‘ a snake’, as ‘a spear’,as ’ a tree’,as ‘a fan’ and even as a ‘rope’: ‘ each was partly in the right , and all were in the wrong’:

 

So oft in theologic wars,
The disputants, I ween,
Rail on in utter ignorance
Of what each other mean,
And prate about an Elephant
Not one of them has seen!

 

 

 

See: http://www.wordinfo.info/words/index/info/view_unit/1/?letter=B&spage=3

 

In both the Tale of the Elephant and the tale of Rasomon, we see the problem of competing perspectives circling around the truth. And these are fables to remember as we study society, because society is a whirling stream of different perspectives and partial truths, stories told from different angles and different perspectives. The sociologist has to recognise this not only in what is being studied, but also in what he or she subsequently writes – the sociologists tales which we can be sure will be challenged by other perspectives in time, both within sociology and outside of. This is the deeply problematic nature of social reality and its varying perspectives……..

 

Both of these accounts though leave something missing. There is a true elephant and somebody did rape and murder! So while we do need to recognise the one sided nature of perspectives for sure, we also must develop a wider account that gets closert to the truth. Ultimately the more perspectives we can develop, the more accurate our portrait may be. We may not be able to tell the whole story, but some stories come much nearer to it than others……

 

 

Page 174

 

Verstehen is a method advocated by Max Weber to highlight the “understanding” and “interpretation” of meaning and human activities. It tries to understand people on their own terms and from their own point-of-view.

 

Hermeneutics refers generally to the ways in which study the interpretive process ( it was originally concerned with the interpretation of written texts). – how do people go about making sense (translating) and interpreting the world around them…Such underatanding has a cucruclar character – each part of an understanding links to other parts.

 

“””The hermeneutic circle describes the process of understanding a text hermeneutically. It refers to the idea that one’s understanding of the text as a whole is established by reference to the individual parts and one’s understanding of each individual part by reference to the whole. Neither the whole text nor any individual part can be understood without reference to one another, and hence, it is a circle. However, this circular character of interpretation does not make it impossible to interpret a text, rather, it stresses that the meaning of text must be found within its cultural, historical, and literary context.”””WIKI   (Habermas)

More WIKI…Jürgen Habermas considered his major achievement to be the development of the concept and theory of communicative reason or communicative rationality, which distinguishes itself from the rationalist tradition by locating rationality in structures of interpersonal linguistic communication rather than in the structure of either the cosmos or the knowing subject. This social theory advances the goals of human emancipation, while maintaining an inclusive universalist moral framework. This framework rests on the argument called universal pragmatics – that all speech acts have an inherent telos (the Greek word for “end”) — the goal of mutual understanding, and that human beings possess the communicative competence to bring about such understanding. Habermas built the framework out of the speech-act philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, J. L. Austin, and John Searle, the sociological theory of the interactional constitution of mind and self of George Herbert Mead, the theories of moral development of Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg, and the discourse ethics of his Heidelberg colleague Karl-Otto Apel.

He carried forward the traditions of Kant and the Enlightenment and of democratic socialism through his emphasis on the potential for transforming the world and arriving at a more humane, just, and egalitarian society through the realization of the human potential for reason, in part through discourse ethics. While Habermas conceded that the Enlightenment is an “unfinished project,” he argued it should be corrected and complemented, not discarded. In this he distanced himself from the Frankfurt School, criticizing it, as well as much of postmodernist thought, for excessive pessimism, misdirected radicalism and exaggerations.

Within sociology, Habermas’s major contribution was the development of a comprehensive theory of societal evolution and modernization focusing on the difference between communicative rationality and rationalization on the one hand and strategic/instrumental rationality and rationalization on the other. This included a critique from a communicative standpoint of the differentiation-based theory of social systems developed by Niklas Luhmann, a student of Talcott Parsons.

His defence of modernity and civil society has been a source of inspiration to others, and is considered a major philosophical alternative to the varieties of poststructuralism. He has also offered an influential analysis of late capitalism.

Habermas saw the rationalization, humanization, and democratization of society in terms of the institutionalization of the potential for rationality that is inherent in the communicative competence that is unique to the human species. Habermas believed communicative competence has developed through the course of evolution, but in contemporary society it is often suppressed or weakened by the way in which major domains of social life, such as the market, the state, and organizations, have been given over to or taken over by strategic/instrumental rationality, so that the logic of the system supplants that of the lifeworld.

Writing

See also the project: Writing Across Boundaries.

This is a project which gets various social scientists who have published quite a bit to reflect on the nature of their writing. It includes pieces by Howard Becker, Harvey Molotch, Marilyn Strathborn and Liz Stanley, myself and many others: see

http://www.dur.ac.uk/writingacrossboundaries

On this website you will also find resources relating to a variety of themes that engage writers in the social sciences. These include and Drafting and Plotting, the Data-Theory Relationship, Narrative, Rhetoric, and Representation and Hints and Tips on Writing

 

Some challenges to orthodox methodologies include: include Chela Sanoval’s Methodology of the Oppressed ( 2000), Les Back, The Art of Listening (2007), Norman Denzin The Qualitative Manifesto: A Call to Arms (2010). Kate Orton-Johnson et al (2013) ed Digital Sociology: Critical Perspectives ; Deborah Lupton, Digital Sociology,

 

Critical qualitative research

Norman Denzin                   The Qualitative Manifesto: A Call to Arms (2010) Left Coast Press

D.Soyini Madison     Critical Ethnography: Method, Ethics and Performance. (2005) Sage

Gayle Letherby                    Feminist Research in Theory and Practice (2003) OU Press

Dorothy Smith                     The Everyday World as Problematic (1988) Northeastern University Press

————                    Writing the Social (1998) Toronto

Marjorie de Vault     Liberating Methodology: Feminism and Research (1999) Temple

Michael Buroway et al         Global Ethnography: Forces, Connections and Imaginations in a Postmodern World (2000) California

Norman Denzin

and Yvonne Lincoln           The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research 3rd edition Sage (2007) (but other editions are worth looking at- they are different)

Linda T Smith           Decolonizing Methodologies Zed Books 1999

Norman K.Denzin &

Yvonna S.Lincoln&

Linda Tuhiwai Smith           Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies eds (2008) Sage

Judith Butler                          Giving a Stance of Oneself (2005) Fordham University

Kath Browne et al    Queer Methods and Methodologies (2010) Ashgate

 

 

 


CHAPTER SEVEN

SUFFERING INEQUALITIES: P180 – 211

 

 

Page 180-1

 

To start with listen to:

Danny Dorling on Inequalities

http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2012/05/danny-dorling-on-inequality/

 

and a quick listing? Try

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwIEZDMDBo4

 

Page 180

 

Here is the full version of ‘ Man’s inhumanity to man makes countless thousands mourn! ‘ By Robert Burns: Man Was Made To Mourn: A Dirge 1784
http://www.robertburns.org/works/55.shtml

1784

Type: Dirge

When chill November’s surly blast
Made fields and forests bare,
One ev’ning, as I wander’d forth
Along the banks of Ayr,
I spied a man, whose aged step
Seem’d weary, worn with care;
His face furrow’d o’er with years,
And hoary was his hair.”Young stranger, whither wand’rest thou?”
Began the rev’rend sage;
“Does thirst of wealth thy step constrain,
Or youthful pleasure’s rage?
Or haply, prest with cares and woes,
Too soon thou hast began
To wander forth, with me to mourn
The miseries of man.”The sun that overhangs yon moors,
Out-spreading far and wide,
Where hundreds labour to support
A haughty lordling’s pride;-
I’ve seen yon weary winter-sun
Twice forty times return;
And ev’ry time has added proofs,
That man was made to mourn.”O man! while in thy early years,
How prodigal of time!
Mis-spending all thy precious hours-
Thy glorious, youthful prime!
Alternate follies take the sway;
Licentious passions burn;
Which tenfold force gives Nature’s law.
That man was made to mourn.”Look not alone on youthful prime,
Or manhood’s active might;
Man then is useful to his kind,
Supported in his right:
But see him on the edge of life,
With cares and sorrows worn;
Then Age and Want-oh! ill-match’d pair-
Shew man was made to mourn.”A few seem favourites of fate,
In pleasure’s lap carest;
Yet, think not all the rich and great
Are likewise truly blest:
But oh! what crowds in ev’ry land,
All wretched and forlorn,
Thro’ weary life this lesson learn,
That man was made to mourn.”Many and sharp the num’rous ills
Inwoven with our frame!
More pointed still we make ourselves,
Regret, remorse, and shame!
And man, whose heav’n-erected face
The smiles of love adorn, –
Man’s inhumanity to man
Makes countless thousands mourn!”See yonder poor, o’erlabour’d wight,
So abject, mean, and vile,
Who begs a brother of the earth
To give him leave to toil;
And see his lordly fellow-worm
The poor petition spurn,
Unmindful, tho’ a weeping wife
And helpless offspring mourn.”If I’m design’d yon lordling’s slave,
By Nature’s law design’d,
Why was an independent wish
E’er planted in my mind?
If not, why am I subject to
His cruelty, or scorn?
Or why has man the will and pow’r
To make his fellow mourn?

“Yet, let not this too much, my son,
Disturb thy youthful breast:
This partial view of human-kind
Is surely not the last!
The poor, oppressed, honest man
Had never, sure, been born,
Had there not been some recompense
To comfort those that mourn!

“O Death! the poor man’s dearest friend,
The kindest and the best!
Welcome the hour my aged limbs
Are laid with thee at rest!
The great, the wealthy fear thy blow
From pomp and pleasure torn;
But, oh! a blest relief for those
That weary-laden mourn!”

 

Page 181

see Goran Therborn talking about inequalities at

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zvp2omouPNs

 

Page 182

As the Irish poet Louis McNeice beautifully put it: the world is ‘ crazier and more of it than we think, the drunkenness of things various’. Human worlds are lush with multiplicities and possibilities. See: http://www.thepoetryexchange.co.uk/uncategorized/snow-by-louis-macneice-2/

 

 

Page 183- 7

On the durability of inequalities, see Charles Tilly: Durable Inequality (1999) Berkeley: University of California Press. It’s blurb states:

“Charles Tilly, in this eloquent manifesto, presents a powerful new approach to the study of persistent social inequality. How, he asks, do long-lasting, systematic inequalities in life chances arise, and how do they come to distinguish members of different socially defined categories of persons? Exploring representative paired and unequal categories, such as male/female, black/white, and citizen/noncitizen, Tilly argues that the basic causes of these and similar inequalities greatly resemble one another. In contrast to contemporary analyses that explain inequality case by case, this account is one of process. Categorical distinctions arise, Tilly says, because they offer a solution to pressing organizational problems. Whatever the “organization” is–as small as a household or as large as a government–the resulting relationship of inequality persists because parties on both sides of the categorical divide come to depend on that solution, despite its drawbacks. Tilly illustrates the social mechanisms that create and maintain paired and unequal categories with a rich variety of cases, mapping out fertile territories for future relational study of durable inequality”
For a critical note on this book, see Mike Savage:

http://www.socresonline.org.uk/3/2/savage.html

 

 

 

 

The Facts of World Inequalities
Danny Dorling on Inequalities

http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2012/05/danny-dorling-on-inequality/

and a quick listing? Try

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwIEZDMDBo4

 

Page 184-5

Here is a clickable listing of the Data list given on page 183-6
World Top Incomes Database http://topincomes.parisschoolofeconomics.eu/

Rich List (Forbes, Sunday Times) http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/public/richlist/

http://www.forbes.com/billionaires/list/

Oxfam Report on Global Poverty:

https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/file_attachments/bp210-economy-one-percent-tax-havens-180116-en_0.pdf

 

For the original Credit Suisse Study see:

Credit Suisse (2015) ‘Global Wealth Databook 2015’. Total net wealth at constant exchange rate (USD billion).

http://publications.credit-suisse.com/tasks/render/file/index.cfm?fileid=C26E3824-E868-56E0-

CCA04D4BB9B9ADD5

An Economy for the 1% 18th January 2016

 

 

Global Slavery Index http://www.globalslaveryindex.org/

Human Development Index (HDI) http://hdr.undp.org/en
Inequality Adjusted Human Development Index
Gender Inequality Index (GID) http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/table-4-gender-inequality-index

see also: http://www.unwomen.org/en
Displaced Migrants: http://www.internal-displacement.org/

Human Security Index: http://www.humansecurityindex.org/

See also:

http://www.globalissues.org/article/26/poverty-facts-and-stats

 

Finally, The United Nations monitors the responses of states across the world, while Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch produce regular nation based comparisons and reports

 

Map of United Nations Indicators on Rights: http://indicators.ohchr.org/

Human Rights Watch http://www.hrw.org/

Amnesty International http://www.amnesty.org.uk/

Annual State Sponsored Homophobia Report on PDF

http://ilga.org/

and http://ilga.org/what-we-do/state-sponsored-homophobia-report/
The Vision of Humanity web site and follow up the leads it provides. See: http://www.visionofhumanity.org

(You will find both the Global Peace Index and The Terrorism Index)

Global Peace Index

http://www.visionofhumanity.org/#/page/indexes/global-peace-index

The Terrorism Index

Global Cost of Violence Report http://www.copenhagenconsensus.com/sites/default/files/conflict_assessment_-_hoeffler_and_fearon_0.pdf
Some more Data

Global wealth is increasingly concentrated in the hands of a small wealthy elite.

Oxfam’s frequently cited fact in 2014: ‘85 billionaires have the same wealth as the bottom half of the world’s population.’

In 2014, the richest 1% of people in the world owned 48% of global wealth, leaving just 52% to be shared between the other 99% of adults on the planet.1 Almost all of that 52% is owned by those included in the richest 20%, leaving just 5.5% for the remaining 80% of people in the world. If this trend continues of an increasing wealth share to the richest, the top 1% will have more wealth than the remaining 99% of people in just two years, as shown on Figure 2, with the wealth share of the top 1% exceeding 50% by 2016.

The Rich List

And in the UK, the Sunday Times Rich list published in April 2015 showed that the wealth of Britain’s richest people has more than doubled in the last ten years. The wealthiest 1,000 individuals and families now have a combined fortune of £547.126 BILLION up from £249.615 billion recorded in 2005.

Here is a list of Britain’s wealthiest 25 people, according to The Sunday Times Rich List.

1 Len Blavatnik £13.17 billion 
2 Sri and Gopi Hinduja £13 billion 
3 Galen and George Weston and family £11 billion 
4 Alisher Usmanov £9.8 billion 
5 David and Simon Reuben £9.7 billion 
6 Ernesto and Kirsty Bertarelli £9.45 billion 
7 Lakshmi Mittal and family £9.2 billion 
8 Kirsten and Jorn Rausing £8.7 billion 
9 The Duke of Westminster £8.56 billion 
10 Roman Abramovich £7.29 billion 
11 John Fredriksen and family £7.24 billion 
12 Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken and Michel de Carvalho £7.145 billion 
13 Sir David and Sir Frederick Barclay £6.5 billion 
14 Hans Rausing and family £6.4 billion 
15 Mohamed Bin Issa Al Jaber and family £5.935 billion 
16 Carrie and Francois Perrodo and family £5.8 billion 
17 Nathan Kirsh £5.06 billion 
18 Earl Cadogan and family £4.8 billion 
19 Nicky Oppenheimer and family £4.55 billion 
20 Sir Richard Branson and family £4.1 billion 
21 Bruno Schroder and family £3.76 billion 
22= Mike Ashley £3.5 billion 
22= Sir James Dyson and family £3.5 billion 
22= Sir Philip and Lady Green £3.5 billion 
25 Sir Henry Keswick and family £3.275 billion

What is shocking about all this is that the world has been gripped by a period of recession and austerity. So how is it possible that the rich – who caused the international banking crisis in the first place – have done so well out of it?

 

More Reading

 

Oxfam International (2014) Even It Up: Time to End Extreme Inequality

(2015) Wealth: Having it all and wanting more https://www.oxfam.org/en/research/wealth-having-it-all-and-wanting-more

 

Danny Dorling (2014) Inequality and the 1%
 (Verso, 2014)
A University of Oxford social geographer has written widely on the horrors of austerity – on poverty, inequality and the housing crisis. He explains why we cannot afford the rich.

 

Stewart Lansley and Joanna Mack (2015) Breadline Britain: The Rise of Mass Poverty One World. Poverty in Britain is now at crisis levels and the current government stigmatizes, excludes and blames the poor whilst protecting the rich.

 

Annette Hastings et al (2015) The Costs of the Cuts: The Impact on Local Givernments and Poorer Communities London: Rowntree see: http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/Summary-Final.pdf

 

Thomas Piketty (2014) Capital in the Twenty-First Century
 (Harvard University Press, 2014)
 Widely discussed, and already a classic, a French economist explores not just how unequal we have become but also shows how even more unequal we are rapidly becoming.

 

Goran Therborn (2013) The Killing Fields of Inequality. Cambridge: Polity

 

James Meek (2015 rev ed) Treasure Island: Why Britain Now Belongs to Some one Else. Verso Critical examination of the ways in which Britain’s public services have been sold off – so the rich benefit and the poor pay.

 

Kerry-Anne Mendoza (2015) Austerity: The Demolition of the Welfare State and the Rise of the Zombie Economy. Oxford: New Internationalist

 

Andrew Sayer (2015) Why we can’t afford the rich/ Bristol: Policy Press

A startling book by a well-known and respected sociologist. He shows how the new economy – and austerity– works to make the rich richer and the poor poorer; how this is now done on a massive scale as the rich live lives cut off from the 99% of the world. Full of quite shocking detail that leads one to ask : just how are they getting away with making our world such a terrible place?

 

Joseph Stiglitz (2012) The Price of Inequality: How Today’s Divided Society Endangers Our Future
 (W.W. Norton)
A Nobel Prize-winning economist paints a vivid picture.

 

Polly Toynbee & David Walker (2015) Cameron’s Coup: How The Tories took Britain to the Brink. Guardian Books. A journalist and obviously partisan book that shows just how much havoc the Coalition has hurled at Britain over the past five years.

 

John Urry (2014) Offshoring . Cambridge: Polity. One of the world’s leading sociologists details the problem of the rich ‘ffshoring’…..

 

Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett (2009) The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger
 (Bloomsbury Press, 2009)
Became an instant classic as it showed that by every measure that matters, from social trust to how long we live, relatively equal nations outperform nations where income concentrates at the top.
Page 186 On Caste

There are a number of films about the caste system on the You Tube: see

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FKZxAAAiJdg&index=3&list=PLDnc1tQT3zoGZgii9LxHrBgzxtVVuLe3E

 

See also: Arudhati Roy On Capitalism and Caste

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3tkQyqLnFbk

 

Page 187   On Slavery

See the documentary: Slavery- A 21st Century Evil (2011) at

http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/slavery-21st-century-evil/

Wikipedia has a list of films featuring slavery: see

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_films_featuring_slavery

 

Page 188 social class

For a review of the Mike Savage et al book

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/nov/13/social-class-21st-century-mike-savage-review

To ask what is your social class, see:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-34766169

 

A recent study to help you investigate the vast writings on social class, look at:

Will Atkinson Class (2015) Polity

An Amazon Blurb says:
Class is not only amongst the oldest and most controversial of all concepts in social science, but a topic which has fascinated, amused, incensed and galvanized the general public, too. But what exactly is a class ? How do sociologists study and measure it, and how does it correspond to everyday understandings of social difference? Is it now dead or dying in today s globalized and media–saturated world, or is it entering a new phase of significance on the world stage?

 

This book seeks to explore these questions in an accessible and lively manner, taking readers through the key theoretical traditions in class research, the major controversies that have shaken the field and the continuing effects of class difference, class struggle and class inequality across a range of domains.

 

The book will appeal to students and scholars in sociology, social policy, geography, education, cultural studies and health sciences.

 

 

Wendy Bottero Stratification: Social Division and Inequality 2005 Routledge

Tony Bennett, Mike Savage, Elizabeth Silva, Alan Warde, Modesto Gayo-Cal, David Wright: Culture, Class, Distinction. 2009   Routledge
Page 188-9 The Globally Excluded

See Children Living in the Guatemala City Dump; Children of the 4th World – Documentary

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O6SPy9qV1M4

 

The Precariat

See Guy Standing: his book A Precariat Charter and he discusses all this on:
“A Precariat Charter: From Denizens to Citizens”, a Seminar with Guy Standing
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGLSGeqF1Po

The notion of The Dispossessed is seen in the science fiction of Ursula Le Gn her novel of that name: hear:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ebb6V-4c0Xw
In human societies, differences are used as moral markers to establish how some are better than others. Moral worth is often attached to this labeling as boundaries are established of the normal and

For a discussion of class and moral boundaries, see especially the work of Michele Lamont: Money, Morals and Manners. 1994. Chicago ; and The Dignity of Working Men 2002 Harvard UP.

 

Page 189

Kimberley Crenshaw is usually seen as the first writers to talk about intersectionality, see her at:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KNKbGFoYC1Q
On intersectional theory: see :

Patricia Hill Collins   Black Feminist Thought 1990 , 2008 3rd ed Routledge
Yvette Taylor ed   Classed Intersections 2010, Ashgate

 

Page 191

On the BBC Survey and Mike Savage etc see

A New Model of Social Class? Findings from the BBC’s Great British Class Survey Experiment Sociology April 2013 vol. 47 no. 2 219-250
http://soc.sagepub.com/content/47/2/219.short

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/arts/books/non-fiction/article4605595.ece

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/0/21970879

 

Page 193

There is much on Bourdieu on the web site. See

HyperBourdieu© WorldCatalogue

http://hyperbourdieu.jku.at/

An online bibliography of comments and elaborations of Bourdieu’s work

http://web.archive.org/web/20080302205941/http://www.massey.ac.nz/~nzsrda/bourdieu/byauthgr.htm

Bourdieu Foundation

http://www.fondation-bourdieu.org/

 

A useful starting point here is the Wikipedia entry.

 

On gender, the literature is equally vast: sample-

  1. Connell Masculinities (1995; 2nd ed 2005) Polity

Amy S Wharton       The Sociology of Gender 2005   Blackwell

Angela Mcrobbie     The aftermath of feminism 2008 Sage

 

An important statement from a long standing central figure is:

Catherine A. MacKinnon    Are Women Human? 2006 Harvard

A contemporary history of feminism is:

Lynne Segal              Why Feminism? 1999 Polity

A sample of twenty first century feminist texts include:

Natasha Walter                    Living Dolls : The Return of sexism 2010 Virago

Kate Banyard                        The Equality Illusion 2010 Faber and Faber

Catherine Redfern & Kristin Aune Reclaiming the Word 2010 Zed
Page 194

Some recent work in this field published as this edition of the book goes to press can be found in the debates in Sociology One Line: The Matter of Race (August 2015: 20, 3, 13): see

http://www.socresonline.org.uk/20/3/13.html

A useful article that can be downloaded on racialization is from Didier Fassin, and he extends the work of Du Bois: see his article at

https://www.sss.ias.edu/files/pdfs/Fassin/Racialization.pdf

 

see also:
Black Lives Matter?

http://blacklivesmatter.com/
Page 195

A wide ranging tour of the current field of disability studies can be found in:

Lennard J.Davis the Disability Studies Reader 2010 3rd edition. Routledge

 

Page 196

The classic writing here is

Eve Kasofsky Sedgwick Epistemology of the Closet 1990 Harvester/ Penguin

Judith Butler   Gender Trouble 1990 Routledge

See also:

Nicki Sullivan A Critical Introduction to Queer Theory 2003 Edinburgh University

 

 

Page 197 The Generational and Age Order

The classic studies are by Mannheim and Eisenstadt:

Karl Mannheim ‘’The problem of generations’ in Collected works of Karl Mannheim Vol 5 p276-320.London: Routledge

S.N. Eisenstadt   From Generation to Generation 1956 Free Press

More recently see:

June Edmunds and Bryan S.Turner Generations, culture and society. 2002. Open University Press

 

For an application of generational theory, see my own work:

Ken Plummer Generational Sexualities, Subterranean Traditions and the Hauntings of the Sexual World: Some Preliminary Remarks   2010 Symbolic Interaction. Vol 33.No 2 p162-p190

 

Page 200 Voices of the Poor: Can anyone hear us was published by the UN in 2000.

It is the the first in a three-part series, about the common patterns that emerged from the poor people’s experiences in many different places. Chapter 1 sets out the conceptual framework and methodology. Chapter 2 discusses poverty from the perspective of the poor. Chapter 3 examines poor people’s experience with the state, and includes case studies of access to health care and education. Chapter 4 addresses the nature and quality of poor people’s interactions with civil society. Chapter 5 considers the household as a key social institution, and discusses gender relations within households and how these relations affect and are affected by larger institutions of society. Chapter 6 focuses on social fragmentation, and includes a discussion of social cohesion and social exclusion. Chapter 7 concludes the analysis and proposes some policy recommendations. The analysis leads to these conclusions: 1) poverty is multidimensional; 2) the state has been largely ineffective in reaching the poor; 3) the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the lives of the poor is limited, forcing the poor to depend primarily on their own informal networks; 4) households are crumbling under the stresses of poverty; and 5) the social fabric – poor people’s only “insurance” – is unraveling.

It can be downloaded in full: see: Deepa Narayan: Voices of the Poor: Can anyone hear us

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTPOVERTY/0,,contentMDK:20622514~menuPK:336998~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:336992,00.html

Volume 2 is subtitled: Crying Out for Change (2004).

 

Page 202

On divisive social processes in general, I have been influenced by – and would strongly recommend reading:

Iris Marion Young Justice and the Politics of Difference 1990 Princeton Chapter 2

 

Page 204

On marginalisation, see Iris Marion Young Justice and the Politics of Difference 1990 Princeton Chapter 2 :p53-6

On exclusion, see David Byrne Social Exclusion 2005 2nd edition Open University

On stereotyping, see Michael Pickering   Stereotyping: The Politics of Representation 2001 Palgrave

 

Page 204

The Process of Exploitation

See: Iris Marion Young Justice and the Politics of Difference 1990 Princeton Chapter 2 p48-53

 

Page 205

Violence as the division of last resort

There is an excellent text on this, strongly recommended:

Peter Iadicola & Anson Shupe: Violence, Inequality and Human Freedom. 2003 2nd edition. Rowman and Littlefield.

 

The Armed Conflict Survey (ACS) is a new annual publication that provides yearly data on fatalities, refugees and internally displaced people for all major armed conflicts, alongside in-depth analysis of their political, military and humanitarian dimensions. The first edition of the book covers the key developments and context of more than 40 conflicts, including those in Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Myanmar, Syria and Yemen.

The ACS features essays by some of the world’s leading authorities on armed conflict, who write on subjects such as:

  • the development of jihadism after 9/11;
  • hybrid warfare;
  • refugees and internally displaced people;
  • criminality and conflict;
  • the evolution of peacekeeping operations

see:

https://www.iiss.org/en/publications/acs/by%20year/armed-conflict-survey-2015-46e5

 

The IISS was founded in the UK in 1958 with a focus on nuclear deterrence and arms control. Today, it is also renowned for its annual Military Balance assessment of countries’ armed forces and for its high-powered security summits, including the Shangri-La Dialogue.

 

 

 

Page 207

On Martha Nussbaum’s ideas see interview with her on the You Tube at:

Conversations with history: September 14th 2006 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qy3YTzYjut4

 

See also; The Human Development and Capability Association

http://www.capabilityapproach.com/index.php

 

and its journal
Journal of Human Development and Capabilities A Multi-Disciplinary Journal for People-Centered Development


Here is a summary of Martha Nussbaum’s Central Human Functional Capabilities.

 

  1. Being able to live to the end of a human life of normal length; not dying prematurely or before one’s life is so reduced as to be not worth living
  2. Bodily Health and Integrity. Being able to have good health, including reproductive health; being adequately nourished; being able to have adequate shelter
  3. Bodily Integrity. Being able to move freely from place to place; being able to be secure against violent assault, including sexual assault, marital rape, and domestic violence; having opportunities for sexual satisfaction and for choice in matters of reproduction.
  4. Senses, imagination, thought. Being able to use the senses; being able to imagine, to think, and to reason – and to do these things in a “truly human” way, a way informed and cultivated by an adequate education, including, but by no means limited to, literacy and basic mathematical and scientific training; being able to use imagination and thought in connection with experiencing and producing expressive works and events of one’s own choice (religious, literary, musical etc.); being able to use one’s mind in ways protected by guarantees of freedom of expression wit respect to both political and artistic speech and freedom of religious exercise; being able to have pleasurable experiences and to avoid nonbeneficial pain
  5. Being able to have attachments to things and persons outside ourselves; being able to love those who love and care for us; being able to grieve at their absence; in general being able to love, to grieve, to experience longing, gratitude, and justified anger; not having one’s emotional developing blighted by fear or anxiety. (Supporting this capability means supporting forms of human association that can be shown to be crucial in their development.
  6. Practical reason. Being able to form a conception of the good and to engage in critical reflection about the planning of one’s own life. (This entails protection for the liberty of conscience.)
  7. (a) Being able to live for and in relation to others, to recognize and show concern for other human beings, to engage in various forms of social interaction; being able to imagine the situation of another and to have compassion for the situation; having the capability for both justice and friendship. (Protecting this capability means, once again, protecting institutions that constitute such forms of affiliation, and also protecting institutions that constitute such forms of affiliation, and also protecting the freedoms of assembly and political speech.) (b) Having the social bases of self-respect and nonhumiliation; being able to be treated as a dignified being whose worth is equal to that of others. (This entails provisions of nondiscrimination.)
  8. Other species. Being able to live with concern for and in relation to animals, plants, and the world of nature
  9. Being able to laugh, to play, to enjoy recreational activities.
  10. Control over one’s environment. (a) Political: being able to participate effectively in political choices that govern one’s life; having the rights of political participation, free speech, and freedom of association (b) Material: being able to hold property (both land and movable goods); having the right to seek employment on an equal basis with others; having the freedom from unwarranted search and seizure. In work, being able to work as a human being, exercising practical reason and entering into meaningful relationships of mutual recognition with other workers.

From Martha Nussbaum Sex and Social Justice. 1999: 41-2; but it can be found everywhere in her work (eg Frontiers of Justice); and most recently in Creating Capabilities (2011) and Development and Change, Forum 2006 Vol 37, No 6 November 2006 p1325-7, where she also comments on problems with the list – page 1315.

 

The Oxfam Recommendations for Change:

See on line PDF: January 2016 Oxfam – An Economy for the 1%

 

  1. Pay workers a living wage and close the gap with executive rewards: by increasing minimum wages towards living wages; with transparency on pay ratios; and protecting workers’ rights to unionize and strike.
  2. Promote women’s economic equality and women’s rights: by providing compensation for unpaid care; ending the gender pay gap; promoting equal inheritance and land rights for women; and improving data collection to assess how women and girls are affected by economic policy.
  3. Keep the influence of powerful elites in check: by building mandatory public lobby registries and stronger rules on conflict of interest; ensuring that good-quality information on administrative and budget processes is made public and is free and easily accessible; reforming the regulatory environment, particularly around transparency in government; separating business from campaign financing; and introducing measures to close revolving doors between big business and government.
  4. Change the global system for R&D and the pricing of medicines so that everyone has access to appropriate and affordable medicines: by negotiating a new global R&D treaty; increasing investment in medicines, including in affordable generics; and excluding intellectual property rules from trade agreements. Financing R&D must be delinked from the pricing of medicines in order to break companies’ monopolies, ensuring proper financing of R&D for needed therapy and affordability of resulting products.
  5. Share the tax burden fairly to level the playing field: by shifting the tax burden away from labour and consumption and towards wealth, capital and income from these assets; increasing transparency on tax incentives; and introducing national wealth taxes.
  6. Use progressive public spending to tackle inequality: by prioritizing policies, practice and spending that increase financing for free public health and education to fight poverty and inequality at a national level. Refrain from implementing unproven and unworkable market reforms to public health and education systems, and expand public sector rather than private sector delivery of essential services.

 

 

 


CHAPTER EIGHT

VISIONS: CREATING SOCIOLOGICAL HOPE

P212 – 236

 

 

 

Page 212

The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it.

Karl Marx, Theses on Feuerbach, 1845,Thesis 11 and engraved upon his tomb

See all the Theses here:

https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/theses/theses.htm

 

Page 213- 4

Ernest Bloch’s three volumes on The Principle of Hope (written at the end of the holocaust) shows how throughout history all societies have needed a sense of hope.

You can find an introduction to it at:

https://www.marxists.org/archive/bloch/hope/introduction.htm

 

page 213: Think on: Sociology and utopia

For discussions on sociological utopias, see:

Eric Ohlin Wright (1947-)

http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~wright/RealUtopias.htm

http://understandingsociety.blogspot.co.uk/2010/06/real-utopias.html

 

and see him ‘live’ on the You Tube:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RzqOc-gkI-o

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X-KcHtYCtTs

 

See a discussion on the idea of Sociological Utopias and the Centre for the Utopian Studies by Ruth Levitas

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bYt_L6e9Zdg

 

Look also at the Ralahine Centre for Utopian Studies and their work

http://ulsites.ul.ie/ralahinecentre/

 

There is also a journal called Utopian Studies : see

http://www.psupress.org/journals/jnls_utopian_studies.html

 

See also:

The debate about utopias from a sociological perspective[1]

Richard Kilminster Human Figurations

Volume 3Issue 2, June 2014

http://www.norberteliasfoundation.nl/docs/pdf/Utopias.pdf

 

Page 216

For other answers to the question of What sociologists do? see

http://www.topuniversities.com/student-info/careers-advice/what-can-you-do-sociology-degree

http://sociology.ucdavis.edu/undergraduate-program/career-options

 

The British Sociological Association’s Response:
http://www.britsoc.co.uk/what-is-sociology/what-do-sociologists-do.aspx

 

Page 219

An interesting article to introduce to to the idea of Communication ethics and dialogue in sociology is:

http://www.communicationcache.com/uploads/1/0/8/8/10887248/a_conversation_about_communication_ethics_with_ronald_c._arnett.pdf

Take a look at the book:

Communication, ethics, literacy by Ronald C Arnett and others. Sage 2009

 

On Bakhtin

 

The key writer and philosopher on dialogue is M. Bakhtin. See his

Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays (1982: University of Texas Press) by M.M. Bakhtin, Michael Holquist, and Caryl Emerson

Rabelais and His World by M.M. Bakhtin and Helene Iswolsky ( 1984) Indiana University Press

For an introduction to his work see:

http://www.isfp.co.uk/russian_thinkers/mikhail_bakhtin.html

http://www.iep.utm.edu/bakhtin/

 

Page 219

Deborah Tannen is prolific. Most of her books are about the misunderstandings between men and women. A classic is : The Argument Culture: Changing the Way We Argue and Debate

See Deborah Tannen http://www.deborahtannen.com/

 

Page 221

On Citizenship:

The classic sociological statement on Citizenship is by T.H.Marshall and can be found at:

http://www.jura.uni-bielefeld.de/lehrstuehle/davy/wustldata/1950_Marshall_Citzenship_and_Social_Class_OCR.pdf

 

On TH Marshall see: Citizenship Today: Contemporary Relevance of T.H. Marshall by Martin Bulmer & Anthony Rees ( University of Southampton) 1996: Routledge

 

For recent debates, see the journal Citizenship Studies

http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ccst20#.VsnJ_yhQ0uI

 

Page 222 The Circle of Sociological Life

Note that I have rethought this a little since the first edition of the book. This is a different circle, reorganized and separating out public from ‘pop’ular sociology, hence adding a new phase.

Compare p192 1st edition, with p222 second edition.

Ideas keep moving on!

 

 

Page 222 – 3. Public Sociology

The core paper on Public Sociology by Burawoy can be downloaded from:
http://burawoy.berkeley.edu/Public%20Sociology,%20Live/Burawoy.pdf

And watched on:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8NxvPKGtkUQ

 

Michael Burawoy. A lot of his work can be accessed via his web site at:

http://burawoy.berkeley.edu/

 

For videos on Public Sociology, see:

http://burawoy.berkeley.edu/PS.Webpage/ps.videos.htm

 

On Margaret Archer and the Vatican

https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/people/qa-with-margaret-archer/2013413.article

 

 

Page 223

Studying sociology in professional courses will bring its own text books like Elaine Denny and Sarah Earle’s Sociology for Nurses (2016 3rd ed) or Anne Llewlynn & Lorraine Agu’s Sociology for Social Workers (2014, 2nd ed).

 

Page 224 Popular Sociology

For current listings of so called popular books in sociology see
‘Sociology Best Sellers’ – with a strong US bias:

https://contexts.org/articles/a-fresh-look-at-sociology-bestsellers/
For access to Laurie Taylor’s programme (which is also accessible on pod casts) , search:

Laurie Taylor   Thinking allowed:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006qy05

 

On Owen Jones. see

http://www.theguardian.com/profile/owen-jones

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCSYCo8uRGF39qDCxF870K5Q
On Naomi Klein, see

http://www.naomiklein.org/main
And Naomi Klein and Owen Jones together at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dhJA7HCPHDA

 

On Grayson Perry on identity The Channel Four programmes Who Are You?see

http://www.channel4.com/programmes/grayson-perry-who-are-you

 

On Antony Gormley on The Body, see

http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2004/apr/22/guesteditors3

 

On Sebastio Salagundi’s The Salt of the Earth (2014) dir Juliana Salagundi, Wim Wenders
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt3674140/

For a Trailer: see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OivMlWXtWpY

And his lecture on the The Drama of Photography

(A TED Lecture: Feb 2-13)

https://www.ted.com/talks/sebastiao_salgado_the_silent_drama_of_photography?language=en

 

 

See Pierre Bourdieu at work as a public intellectual, see …..

You Tube: Sociology as a Martial Art

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Csbu08SqAuc

(but it is in French with translation)

 

 

Page 224
The term ‘Moral Imagination’ was probably first used by the literary critic Lionel Trilling; and is certainly the title of a book by Getrude Himmelfarb (1907).

 

Page 225 -6

On the Value Debate, see For Max Weber’s classic texts: -6 http://www.ne.jp/asahi/moriyuki/abukuma/weber_texts.html

Look especially at: Objectivity in social science, Science as a vocation :Politics as a vocation. All downloadable.

 

Page 228

See my discussion on the Common Ground in
Ken Plummer Intimate Citizenship 2003 : Washington Chapter 7

Cosmopolitan Sexualities

 

A Classic illustration of this The Golden Rule

Ancient Egyptian: Eloquent Peasant, 109 – 110

Baha’i Faith: Gleanings

Buddhism: Udana-Varga 5.1, Samyutta Nikaya v.353, Sutta Nipata 705

Christianity: Bible Matthew 7.12, Matthew 22.36-40, Leviticus 19.18

Confucianism: Analects 15.23, Mencius VII.A.4

Hinduism: Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva 113.8, Mahabharata 5:1517

Humanism: British Humanist Society

Native American Spirituality: The Great Law of Peace, Black Elk, Pima proverb

Islam: Forty Hadith of an-Nawawi 13

ainism: Acarangasutra 5.101-2, Sutrakritanga 1.11.33

Judaism: Leviticus 19.18, Shabbat 31a

Shinto:Ko-ji-ki Hachiman Kasuga

Sikhism: Guru Granth Sahib, pg. 1299

Sufism: Javad Nurbakhsh

Taoism: T’ai Shang Kan Ying P’ien, 213-218

Unitarianism: Unitarian principle

Wicca: Wiccan Rede

Yoruba: Yoruba Proverb (Nigeria)

Zoroastrianism: Shayast-na-Shayast 13.29

See on line: http://www.religioustolerance.org/reciproc.htm

 

 

Page 228 -9

Here is a short list of works to help you take some of these ideas further.

 

On Care
You Tube: See some speakers on care:

Nel Noddings : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ns-XreddOis

Joan Tronto Caring Democracy: Markets, Equality and Justice NYU Press 2013

And see her on line at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H-utAjZ_obc

 

Reading:
Joan Tronto   Caring Democracy
Marian Barnes Care in Everyday Life

Michael D.Fine A Caring Society? Care and the Dilemmas of Human Service in the Human Service Industry in the 21st Century 2007 Palgrave

Natan Sznaider The Compassionate Temperament: care and Cruelty in Modern Society 2001 Rowman and Littlefield

Nial Scott & Jonathan Seglow Altruism 2007 Open University McGraw Hill

Ian Wilkinson Suffering: A Sociological Introduction 2005 Polity Press

 

On Freedom. Equality and Justice, see

Michael Sandel’s famous seminar /lecture discussions on the You Tube at:

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL30C13C91CFFEFEA6

 

On Justice

Amartya Sen                         The Idea of Justice (2009) Allen Lane.

Michael Sandel                                  Justice: What’s the right thing to do? (2007/2009) Penguin
Iris Marion Young               Justice and the politics of difference (1990) Princeton

Nancy Fraser                                    ‘From Redistribution to Recognition: Dilemmas of Justice in a ‘Post-socialist’ Age’.           in Nancy Fraser. Justice Interruptus (1997: Chapter 1)
————                               The Scales of Justice

Sam Harris                            The Moral Landscape:How Science Can Determine Human Values (2011) Bantham.

Lukes, Steven                                   Moral Relativism 2008 Profile

Peter Singer                          Writings on an Ethical Life (2000) Harper Collins
Ronld Dworkin                                Justice for Hedgehogs (2011)

 

 

On Dialogue

Taylor, Charles et al                      Multiculturalism: Examining the politics of recognition (1994) Princeton

Frank, Arthur                                   Letting Stories Breathe: A Socio-Narratology (2010)

Bakhtin, Michel                                 The Dialogic Imagination
Habermas, Jurgen              Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action (1992) Polity

Arnett, Ronald C. et al                    Communication Ethics, Literacy: Dialogue & Difference (2009) Sage
Benhabib, Seyla                               The Claims of Culture: Equality and diversity in the global era (2002)

Zygmunt Bauman               Postmodern Ethics (1999) Blackwell

Lois McNay                           Against Recognition (2008) Polity

Kwame Anthony Appiah   The Ethics of Identity (2007) Princeton

 

Page 229

On Cosmopolitanism

What is Cosmopolitanism?
For the Ghanian-American philosopher Kwame Anthony Appiah, in his book Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a world of Strangers ( 2006)) it is a ‘universal concern and respect for legitimate difference’ (Appiah,2006:xv). For the Swedish anthropologist Ulf Hannerz (in Ulf Hannerz   Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places.( 1996) it is ‘a mode of managing meaning’ ‘ a willingness to engage with the other’. ‘It entails an intellectual and aesthetic openness toward divergent cultural experiences, a search for contrasts rather than uniformity. ……(It is) a state of readiness: an ability to make one’s way into other cultures, through listening, looking, intuiting and reflecting (Hannerz: 1996: p103). For the German sociologist Ulrich Beck (who is at the forefront of sociological writers in this field) we have arrived at the ‘cosmopolitan moment’ as an emergent and distinctive feature of modernity: ‘the human condition has itself become cosmopolitan’. We live with the ideas that ‘local, national, ethnic, religious and cosmopolitan cultures and traditions interpenetrate, interconnect and intermingle – cosmopolitanism without provincialism is empty, provincialism without cosmopolitanism is blind’ (Beck Cosmopolitan Vision 2006:p7). For the British sociologist, Robert Fine, cosmopolitanism is bound up deeply with international law and human rights. Indeed, cosmopolitanism is both ‘a determinate social form’ which ‘reconfigures’ a whole sphere of (potentially contradictory) rights as well as being a ‘form of consciousness that involves an understanding of the concept of cosmopolitanism and a capacity to develop the concept in imaginative and reflexive’. He sees it as both outlook (a way of seeing the world) and a condition ( an existing form of the world) (In Cosmopolitanism p 111, 134.) Finally, for the influential US feminist philosopher Martha Nussbaum, it raises the issue of a ‘decent world culture’ and a world moral community:

 

If our world is to be a decent world in the future, we must acknowledge right now that we are citizens of one interdependent world, held together by mutual fellowship as well as the pursuit of mutual advantage, by compassion as well as self interest, by a love of human dignity, in all people, even when there is nothing to gain from cooperating with them. Or rather even when we have to gain the biggest thing of all: participation in a just and morally decent world. Martha Nussbaum Frontiers of Justice 2006: p324

 

On Human development and Human Flourishing

Severine Deneulin with Lial Shahini eds An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach. 2009 Earthscan

On Martha Nussbaum and Capabilties:

Books

  • Martha Nussbaum (2011), Creating Capabilities; The Human Development Approach. Harvard University Press.
  • Séverine Deneulin with Lila Shahani (eds) (2009), An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach, available online at ca/en/ev-143029-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
  • Sakiko Fukuda-Parr and Shiv Kumar (eds) (2009), Handbook in Human Development, Delhi: Oxford University Press.
  • Amartya Sen (2009), The Idea of Justice, London: Allen Lane
  • Sabina Alkire (2002), Valuing Freedoms, Oxford University Press
  • Martha Nussbaum (2000), Women and Human Development, Cambridge University Press
  • Amartya Sen (1999), Development as Freedom, Oxford University Press
  • Amartya Sen (1992), Inequality Re-examined, Oxford University Press

Introductory articles

  • Ingrid Robeyns  (2011), “The Capability Approach”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/capability-approach.
  • Ingrid Robeyns (2005), “The Capability Approach: A Theoretical Survey”, Journal of Human Development 6(1): 93–114.
  • Sabina Alkire (2005), “Why the Capability Approach”, Journal of Human Development 6(1): 115–33.
  • Martha Nussbaum (2003) “Capabilities as Fundamental Entitlements: Sen and Social Justice”, Feminist Economics 9 (2–3): 33–59.
  • Sabina Alkire (2002), “Dimensions of Human Development”, World Development 30 (2), 181–205.
  • Amartya Sen (1993),” Capability and Well-Being”, in M. Nussbaum and A. Sen (eds.) The Quality of Life, Oxford Clarendon Press, pp. 30–53.
  • Martha Nussbaum (1993), “Non-Relative Virtues: An Aristotelian Approach”, in M. Nussbaum and A. Sen (eds) The Quality of Life, Oxford Clarendon Press, pp. 242–69.
  • Amartya Sen (1989), “Development as Capability Expansion”, Journal of Development Planning 19: 41–58, reprinted in: Sakiko Fukuda-Parr and A.K. Shiva Kumar (eds.) (2003), Readings in Human Development, Oxford University Press, pp. 3–16
  • Amartya Sen (1988), “The Concept of Development”, in Behram and Strinivasan (eds.) Handbooks of Development Economics. Elsevier: North-Holland, pp. 3–23.

 

There are also web sites that provide entrances:

Web Sites on Humanism, Human Flourishing and Common Grounds

Human Development and Capabilities Association (HDCA)

“is a global community of academics and practitioners that seeks to build an intellectual community around the ideas of human development and the capability approach, and relate these ideas to the policy arena.  The association promotes research within many disciplines, ranging from economics to philosophy, development studies, health, education, law, government, sociology, and more. Our members live in over 70 countries worldwide

https://hd-ca.org/

Search for Common Ground: Understanding differences, working on commonalities

“Founded in 1982, Search for Common Ground works to transform the way the world deals with conflict – away from adversarial approaches and towards collaborative problem solving. We work with local partners to find culturally appropriate means to strengthen societies’ capacity to deal with conflicts constructively: to understand the differences and act on the commonalities. Using innovative tools and working at different levels of society, we engage in pragmatic long-term processes of conflict transformation. Our toolbox includes media production – radio, TV, film and print – mediation and facilitation, training, community organizing, sports, theater and music. We promote both individual and institutional change and are committed to measuring the results of our work and increase our effectiveness through monitoring and evaluation. We currently work in 26 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East.”

http://www.sfcg.org/sfcg/sfcg_intro.html

 

On Rights and Dignity

Human Rights

Fagan, Andrew                   The Atlas of Human Rights 2010 Myriad

Morris, Lydia ed                  Rights: Sociological Perspectives 2006 Routledge

Freeman, Michael               Human Rights 2002 Polity

Ishay, M.R. (2004)                The History of Human Rights: From ancient times to the globalization era, California: California University Press

Ishay, Micheline R ed                     The Human Rights Reader ( 2nd ed 2007 Routledge)

Lukes, Steven                                   ‘Five Fables About Human Rights’ in On Human Rights ed Stephen Shute and Susan Huxley (1993: Oxford)

Kay Schafer and Sidonie Smith      Human rights and Narrated Lives: The ethics of recognition (2004) Palgrave

Ken Plummer                                   Intimate Citizenship: Private Decisions and Public Dialogues (2003)Washington

 

 

Page 230

Charles Taylor sees the social imaginary as ‘the ways people imagine their social existence, how they fit together with others, how things go on between them and their fellows, the expectations that are normally met, and the deep normative notions and images that underlies these expectations” (2003: p23).

Charles Taylor Modern Social Imaginaries 2003, Duke
http://www.cjsonline.ca/reviews/socialimaginaries.html
http://ant.sagepub.com/content/6/3/322.abstract
John Thompson says the imagnary is the “The creative and symbolic dimensions of the social world through which people live their collective images of life” (Studies in the Theory of Ideology, 1984, page 6).

 

The idea derives from Cornelius Castoriades, 1975, The Imaginary Institution of Society. 1975. It enables us to see how people can imagine their lives as a whole. The idea can work to help clarify boundaries and horizons, limits and possibilities. Utopian imaginaries might lead to the emancipation of individuals from entrenched institutions?

 

There is a Centre for ‘Imaginaries of the Future’ : see

https://imaginariesofthefuture.wordpress.com/

 

 

Page 232

 

Suffering

See Iain Wilkinson http://www.kent.ac.uk/scarr/events/finalpapers/wilkinson.pdf

http://www.medicalsociologyonline.org/oldsite/archives/issue11/probsuf.html

 

Good lives

See Lisa MacFarquhar Strangers Drowning: Voyages to the Brink of Moral Extremity

See also my thoughts on this book:

https://kenplummer.com/2016/01/14/a-book-to-start-the-year-with/

It is the story of ‘extreme do – gooders’, obsessed altruists who push their lives to ‘moral extremity’, wanting above all to solve the world’s problems in a directly practical way – and to be a good person. They shun worlds of comfort, self indulgence and money, and engage with an extreme ethical commitment that means they must do good above all else. They show little interest in anything other than maximising their behaviour to have a good impact on the world. This ‘driveness’ largely come out of childhood experiences, and often religion. They lack the ability which most (?) of us seem to have to shut out the unbearable sufferings of the world- so we can just get on with our own life! Yet whilst these people face many difficulties, they are sort of happy. I wondered as I read the book if this was perhaps the start of a new field of enquiry: the sociology of ‘goodness’?

Larissa MacFarguahar is a journalist at the New Yorker and her book constructs intriguing third person accounts throughout – bringing her seemingly extraordinary people alive in their complexity; and at the same time she weaves through the book a much wider reading of the philosophers, social scientists, self help advocates and novelists who have been critical of such a stance of the world. It all makes for compelling reading.

Let me sample some of the key unusual and maybe uncommon people who tell their stories in this book. Here is Aaron who devotes his life to animal’s rights and has done a great deal to reduce the sufferings of chickens in the world. Here is Dorothy originally a nurse and now in her mid-80s, who has devoted her life to women’s health and midwifery in Mulukuku, Nicaragua. Her former husband, Charles, was impressed by Ghandi and had devoted his life to peace protests. (He also devised a scheme called the World Equity Budget (WEB), which allowed him to calculate, and live on, his fair share of the world’s wealth: $12,000 a year). We meet a couple, Sue and Hector, who adopt some 20 children, many with profound disabilities and troubled lives. They face one problem after another, but have no reservations at all about doing this. There’s Baba, a risk taker if ever there was one, who found a leper colony in India (and tests his son’s courage by sending him to fetch water at a well where a tiger has been heard roaring. And then there is Kimberley, a devoted church goer, who ends up as a missionary in Mozambique. She donates a kidney to a stranger, even as her act inspires hostility from others. And then there is the Buddhist priest in Japan who counsels people who want to commit suicide only to have them turn on him in his hour of need.

The book takes its title Strangers Drowning from Peter Singer’s ideas on ‘effective giving’, and charity as a purely rationalistic, utilitarian act. Human beings are really morally required to reduce the suffering of others in the most effective ways they can. Hence: if you saw two groups of people drowning – your mother, and two other people, who would you save? Saving your mother has less value than two other people. For me this is a non-starter as an ethical puzzle: I would save my mother. But not so for Singer – and most of the people in this book- for whom a refined moral calculus depends upon a highly rationalized counting system.

Of course, the big issue is whether will go along with this long standing tradition of rational utilitarianism, developed by Jeremy Bentham; and Peter Singer has to be the major and most well known of modern proponents. But this view raises a lot of problems. To start with, what might the world look like if everybody did these extremes acts for others, forsaking their own? As MacFarquhar puts it so pointedly: What would the world look like is everyone thought like a do gooder? (p300). This world would be a very different place from the one we live in now. Indeed it is hard to imagine. In part this is because the human problems of suffering and poverty etc would no longer be here; if the problem is solved , what is to be done? And partly because the very thing we take to be humanity – the muddled, vulnerable, frail little animal – would be no more. Suffering and dealing with problems is actually a key feature of our very humanity. A world where everything gets solved in one way only would not be a very human world.

 

Page 233

Life in a Day

https://www.youtube.com/user/lifeinaday

 

Page 234 : Inspirations? New Approaches? Looking Ahead?
And so to end with: here are some writings, talks and ideas to get you talking about where sociology is heading…..

 

John Holmwood Re-Imagining Sociology after the public University

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HiBh-iBpfs8

Universities in Crisis: Markets V Publics

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=COWrlYyeqys

 

Max Haiven Crises of Imagination and Crises of Power

Max Haiven and Alex Khasnabish The Radical Imagination (2014)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jsCUa5IfrX8

 

David Beer Punk Sociology (2014) Palgrave

See: http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2014/03/30/book-review-punk-sociology/

https://simplysociology.wordpress.com/2014/01/28/a-review-of-punk-sociology/

 

David Bollier   Think like a commoner: A short introduction to the life of the Commons (2014)

To hear what the idea of the commons see, click

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0hqrPSR51bw

 

Listen to the sociologist Roberto Unger who sets an important image of what sociology could become:

listen to: http://www.socialsciencespace.com/2014/01/roberto-mangabeira-unger-what-is-wrong-with-the-social-sciences-today/

His critique is mainly of economics but he argues it applies to all the social sciences.